Friday, April 29, 2011


german military officer known as Desert Fox
land parrot troupers behind German lines to hit them from back, bombarding them from guns on battle ships
the ships missed their targets-the British and Americans did not realize this until their landing craft landed on the beaches
largest landing force on normandy of man kind and the plan hadn't worked
parrot troups missed the spot where they were supposed to land and did not catch up to where they were supposed to be dropped
now on June 4 at DDAY-enormous invasion force getting ready to land and none of preparations have been made correctly

Wednesday, April 27, 2011


the Furer- or the Leader of the entirety of germany public who is required to accept him as the cause of any benefit in their life
to go against the Furer is to go against the state and they will be executed

  • in England, there is a coronation of a new king 
  • Stoland killing his own people
  • non-aggression pact-gremany and Russia say that they will not put up arms against each other
    • this will not be maintained but it occurred in 1939

  • invasion of Poland by Germany began the WWII-took Germany a month to occupy the entire nation
  • the Blitkreig-lightening war=-style of warfare that the nazi's came up with-
    • bomb the hell out of them, then bring in tanks and run them over, very fast
  • Britain marches off to war
  • hitler then turned his attention to the west
  • Britain prepared for the worst-airrade drill is practiced at schools
  • the phony war/the bore war-people tired of all the drills they must practice for the incredible things that have yet to occur

  • May 10th 1940-germany troops went to france, netherlands, norway, and belgium
  • british troops in france were retreating
  • civilians in france got together their belongings and abandon their houses to get away from war
  • troops were hungry and thirsty

  • nazi's getting best of treatment
  • 300,000 exhausted soldiers were 
  • last of british allies in france in 1940 leave because of being under so much heavy fire from Germany artillery
  • France is split into n. and s. areas. 
  • its called Vichy France- german people govern nation
  • vichy france is a hot bed of france resistance where they fight agains the germans
  • french people were refugees until they could not find any other place to go

  • Winsten Churchill-
  • churchill is know for making the victory sign-reversed is the way British people flip the bird
  • the blitz-heaving bombing of english cities-in the skies
  • 40,000 people killed and 2 million homes destroyed
  • BATTLE OF BRITAIN-won by Britain

  • Hitler prepares for a new war-invading soviet union-
  • Hitler cannot crush Britain and Britain withstands the blitz
    • nightly airbomonbing in 1940-1941 for 6 months
    • hitler does not go for a land invasion
    • chooses to invade soviety union
  • invading cities because that is where the infrastructure and industrialization is

operation Barbarosa-name Nazi's gave to invasion of Soviet Union
  • 3 million men move to east
  • treaty with russians is about to be invaded
  • german officers toasted largest army force in history
  • june 22, 1941-german troops cross boarder
  • 1000 miles of war from Baltic to Black Sea
  • 3 million soviet soldiers were captured
  • prisoners of war die

  • Germans head towards moscow
  • fail to take moscow and many years of bloodshed to come.

Tuesday, April 26, 2011

World War II

most demanding section on the AP exam

soviet union-reamins an allie with partners from WWI
however, they are becoming more isolated as they take on the project of creating a communist society
increase industrialization because they need factories to make ammunition and military materials

especially with Germany-growing power and contempt because they have reparations to pay-this adds to the anti-Semitic feelings in Germany
-hitler-anti soviet, anti-communist, and anti-jew
hitler was not working in a vacuum-
facism-in Italy with Moussolini; becoming dictator and ruler of new roman empire
invades north africa to go for oil well and trade routes there
lingering relationship going back to 1920's today
FACISM-beleif in a very select view (dictator) ruling the governmental power of the people. in the hands of private interest with direct connection to dictator-no say at all
give people pleasant life for this
spreads to spain
facist in Spain are lead by GENERAL FRAnCO-spanish civil war-consider it the precursor to WWII
Franco allows German air force to practice its bombing runs by bombing civilian population of Guernica, Spain
Basques-people lived on Spanish side of Pyronese
thousands dead-picasso's painting GuernicaPicasso-Guernica.jpg
Germany becomes a hotspot for scientific thinkers
In prison, Hitler writes a book on the reason for the troubles in germany-Jews and Socialists
hitler has more power out of jail
hitler wanted to confuse his audience-hitler was anti-socialist-calls his party the NATIONAL SOCIALIST PARTY-propoganda against germany population
georbbles-minister of propaganda

hitler had been in power for four years
civil war in spain was a dress rehearsal for second WW
the democracies of united sates and britain had failed to aid against fascism initially
George XI was corinated in England during this time

united states was emerging from its economic problems

1939-nazi germay was strong and confident
land was seized in slovakia
Germany was in depression when HItler first came to power
England-king of England abdicated the throne-king Edward fell in love with a girl from Baltimore and left the throne for her
George XI must come to throne
hitler solidifies power unto himself
parliament of Germany catches fire-Hitler as Chancelor takes emergency measures
--claims parliament is barred and he must take full power of Germany
--hitler works on industrialization of the country; wants to build a modern army
----tanks become serious weapons of warfare
-blitzcreig operations
british army appeases Germany-does not want to go to war because of the travesty that happened to England in WWI-more than happy to come to terms with Germany
Franco comes to power in spain-wants to crush Republicans in country
-spanish civil war-bakced by fascists
-republicans backed by rest of western europe, except Eng and US never "formally" join the war
fascists win and franco takes power-fracists have spain italy north africs and germany
Hitler feels confident and stars to make his move
1939-annexes austria-took it for Germany
British starting to see that Hitler was not what he said he was
HIter claimed he would keep the German boarders in place-Hitler will invade poland and france is protesting this, russia is protesting this,
hitler goes right into poland and rolls it over in a week
polish army was completely un prepared

Friday, April 15, 2011

Art 1-high powers coming together to hopefully make a peaceful agreement.
doc. 2 Should one of the High Contracting Parties be attacked by another Power, the other High Contracting Party binds itself hereby, not only not to support the aggressor against its high Ally, but to observe at least a benevolent neutral attitude towards its fellow Contracting Party
doc 8-serbia and austria tension.

World War began in 1914 when Austrian Emporer Francis Ferdinand was assented by Serbian Nationalists and Germany declared war on Russia because it thought war was inevitable. Alliances were made with countries such as Britain and France who had been prior competitors over imperialist land-owning's. Overall, these alliances with France, Russia, and Britian were made with Serbia to enclose Germany, the great rising force of the 20th century. The war was thought to be inevitable because of the accumulative tensions between the greatest empires of Europe in which people hoped would come to a peaceful, balance-of-power agreement (Doc. 1).  The deepest and most pure reason for the beginning of World War I can be summed up by the idea of racism between the powers of Germany, Serbia and Austria and France and Britain, but if the largest powers had not become the most racist subjects of the war, then the war would not have been so prolonged and devastating.
Germany had grown into a great industrial and political power in the end of the 19th century, but this was because of the influx in nationalism after the enlightenment. Germans taught and encouraged nationalism throughout the youth who grew into this century of war. With this, by the 19th century leading up to the war, other nations believed that Germany was apart of a social race that was better gifted intellectually than other races (Doc. 3). Another source suggested that Germany itself understood that concepts of great power in geopolitics before the war, but it did not have the material backing in the war to fully dominate (Doc. 4). Then, when Germany went to war with Russia, it obliged because Germany considered the military of Russia a good challenge for the german militia (Doc 9).There are all underlying examples of how Germany embraced its power and thought itself a race above the rest of the European powers that seemed to not stand a chance against Germany.
Serbia and Austria were the first to start World War I because of the assassinating of Austia-Hungarian emporer, Francis Ferdinand (Doc. 8). This occurred because of the contempt built up for Austria by the Serbian nationalists. Austria and Russia were infuriated by this mentality of the Serbs and felt that their greater powers needed to penalize the small serbian country (Doc. 8). In the Declaration of war between Serbia and Austria, it proclaimed that Serbia communicate with manners to the Austrians after the assassination, and their war was then declared (Doc.7). The Austrians took Serbia's lack of an answer as an agreement to begin World War I, because they believed they were the higher power. Lastly, Austrians described early before the war that the agitation and anxiety that Serbians put forth against Austrians has lead to the assassination of Francis Ferdinand, because Serbian grew in nationalism to confront the powerful Austrian empire (Doc 8). These long lasting tensions between Austria and Serbia proved that Austria was openly racist on Serbia because of Austria's power, and Serbia reacted with a wave of nationalism.
France and Britain are a different case to Germany, Austria, and Serbia, because the aggression towards France from Germany caused for the alliance of France and Britain (Doc. 2). Before the war however, Britain and France had been largely opposing empires that battled for power over imperialism in Africa and Asia. When Germany went to war with France, Italy was a supporter of Germany that promised to give support to Germany against France whenever it needed it; likewise, when France went to war with Germany at the Battle of Verdun, Britain saw that France needed the support of troupes (Doc. 2). From here, France, Russia and Britain allied despite their imperial inquisitions. Britain was considered at first to be the mediator of the Serbian allies (Doc. 9). In the power struggle between France and Britain, neither decided to compete for power because they recognized the rationality of mutual support and alliance.
Overall, racism was the greatest instigator of World War I, but the reason why the war was no easily resolved was because the greatest powers greatest the greatest tensions and prejudiced ideals. Germany had great power in the 19th century and because it great nationalism it spread itself too thin across Europe and could not dominate all at the same time. Austria and Russia went up against serbia because it  felt it could easily take on the lower power of Serbia, but Serbia had many alliances as well that supported the smaller country. Finally, France and Britain were successful aids to each other because they were equal in power and dropped their competitiveness to support each other throughout the war. If all of the countries had had a balance of nationalism but mutual respect for each other then these alliances and tensions would not have accumulated into the first World War.

Wednesday, April 13, 2011

Timeline of WWI

January 18, 1871-Bismark unifies Russia and German Kingdoms-William I proclaimed Kaiser
May 10-French signs treaty to end Franco-Prussian watr
1888-William I dies and William II becomes ruler
1894-Nicholas II becomes Tsar of Russia
january 22
June 28, 1914-Franz Ferdinand is assassinated in Sarajevo-duke of Austia-hungarian empire
july 28-austria-hungary declares war on Serbia
war between austria and serbia
Austra hungary allies with russia
french allied with russia-allied with Serbia
italy with austria
english allies with Russia
Aug.1-germany declares war on Russia
aug 3-germany declares war on France
Aug 4-Germany declares war on Belgium to defeat France quickly-britain then declares war on Germany
Aug 6-austria Hungary declares war on Russia
aug22- "The Battle of the Frontiers" 27,000 frrench soldiers die on this day in an offensive trust to the east of Paris, towards the German borders
August 26-30-German army achieves its greatest victory of the war on the Eastern front against Russia at the Battle of Tennenberg-led by ErichLudendorff and Paul 
sept. 5-10-first battle of the Marne halts German incision in France
Sept 15-Frist teaches of the Western front are dug
Dec. 25-Unofficial Christmas truce declared by soldiers in the trenches along the Western Front
-beginning of trench warfare

jan.-war becomes total war-with German Zeppelin air raid on England
feb. 4-germany declares submarine blockade 
april 25-allies begin nine-month battle for turkish peninsula Gallipoli
May 7-U-boat sunks in Lusitania. 1,198 civilians inclusing 128 americans die
aug30-germany responds to US anger by ceasing to sink ships without warning
sept5-tsar nicholas takes command of the russian armies
sept 15-british use gas in battle near Loos, but shifting winds cause 60,000 British casualties
Dec. 19
Dec. 28

Romanticism is reaction against neoclassicism
realism is a reaction against romanticism
Impressionism is a reaction against Realism
pop art-