Monday, March 28, 2011

socialism dbq

Socialism branched from Republicanism in the early 19th century, because people came to disapprove unequal distribution of wealth and goods. Socialists wanted equal rights for all, but they were opposed to upper class people who received more income for less work with little impact on society. Marxism branched from socialism because the German men, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels agreed that middle class workers deserved irrational differences in wages from other workers of other trades. They came to be against government and religion, because Marx and Engel concluded that it was run by the upper class. Therefore, the socialist movements of the 19th century urged to improve the treatment of the working class, while people such as Saint-Simon fantasized that the upper class be illuminated so that only the functional workers were running society. Socialism Marxism are based on equality, but because everyone would be given a set, equal income, there would be a large decrease in work ethic and increase in fatalism as there would be nothing extra to work for.
The family in figure 1 appears run down because they are working to keep the family alive; they are an illustration of the socialist observation. The family is lost in the crowd of middle class people that are in the same situation. If the family got enough money from their jobs to feed the children, then they would be able to treat their work with less fluster because of its success. This would not get them away from the middle class, however, because there would be no competition to get there; all of the people around them would be getting paid the same. The expression of the faces in the paintings would change from being completely tired, but the eargerness would be gone. The middle class envied the upper class for not having to work as much to survive, but with equal wages, the middle class would be able to work without the worry of survival but without the luxuries of the upper class.
The couple in figure 2 are apart of the upper class that has the luxury to walk through Paris with the rank of success and happiness, even on rainy days. These are the people that Saint-Simon wished to eliminate in society, because they seemingly do nothing that implies hard work. These men got these lives because they were born into a wealthy family or had the opportunity and education to fill a wealthy position; however, under socialism, they would have the same job but they would get paid less. Therefore, the same amount of seemingly little work would be done by these men but they would be paid as much as any middle class worker. The painting shows content expressions in its characters, and through socialism, this would not change beyond a bit of corruption due to the loss of income; however, their jobs and living would not change.
Equal pay helps the middle in minute ways, but fantasizing of a planned society where everyone is the same would backfire with many more problems in both the upper and middle class. People of the middle class would gain money, but not enough money to climb from their position in society. The upper class would lose its income, but because everything would change accoringly, their position in society would not change much either. The paintings shown by figures 1 and 2 well depict the differences in classes of the 19th century, and with industrialization of the period, the domination of the upper class was enhanced. With socialism and Marxism, workers created unions for change and equality, even though equality was not an easy answer. Fatalism was what the middle class was trying to surmount, but equal pay and a loud voice would only fixate the middle class in their social situation.

Friday, March 18, 2011

second FRQ


With the French Revolution, revolutionaries in France wanted democratic ruling and the ability to contend with the first and second estates. Middleclass men rose violently through the French revolution to become oppressive rulers themselves, simply as the tables became turned. Garibaldi and Mazinni were seen as liberals who wanted democracy through an extent of peace in the Italian fight for unification. Mazinni was the original peacemaker that brought about a following that Garibaldi came to rule afterwards. The unification of Italy was successful to an extent; however, the Papal States continued to isolate Northern Italy from Southern Italy. French revolutionaries achieved democracy and an overturn of the government, but many hardships were met following the success. Overall, Mazinni’s and Garibaldi’s search for peace lead to a tension bound nation that still exists today, while Robbes Pierre and others from France created a revolution that does not extend to the present. Eventhough, the French revolution was horribly violent, the stricter, more organized rule over a people in a revolution is more beneficial in comparison to the peacemaking the Mazinni and Garibaldi cherished in Italy.
            In the French revolution, Robbes Pierre and his men from the National Assembly began in the lower class, but as their power came they took advantage of the authority. Millions of innocent French people were killed in the French revolution and in the aftermath of the war, there were still countless riots. Several constitutions were made and remade but the country was still in turmoil and the distinction of classes was also present. This was not worth the loss of millions of people, but the French did come to find more unification in the Napoleonic era and generations to follow. Today, France is a wealthy, transient city that does not have apparent effects that came from the French revolution.
            Italy, on the other hand, still experiences a split of classes between the North and the South, and many stereotypes come from this that are rooted from the period of Emanual Victor, Mazinni, and Garibaldi. Mazinni and Garibaldi wanted unification of Northern and Southern Italy with mindsets that are similar to today’s liberal terms. Austria was quite powerful over Italy in this time, however, and it was grueling to get out of the clutch of Metternich’s powers. Mazinni and Garibaldi were able to unify with Lombardy, Peidmont Sardinia, and the southern provinces, but the Papal States were kept out of the unification, as the pope did not want to be given power. This isolation from the unified pieces of Italy caused for a makeshift peace that has not fully solidified even until today. Relatively less violence was used with Mazinni and Garibaldi, but the job of unification was not done like in France.
            If each of these nations had seeked unification in a way that meets equilibrium of violence and peace, then the nations could have unified more smoothly. Robbe’s Peirre did not have the right to kill random French people who somehow rubbed him the wrong way. If he had divided the people who were proven to be against his ideas from the bystanders of the revolution, then a large fraction of people may not have died. The second estate of the French revolution had gotten too much power and became the exact people that they despised enough to start the revolution in the first place. With Mazinni and Garibaldi, however, they’re non violent mindset was too weak in comparison to the strength of Austria-Hapsburh and the authority of the pope. Violence is never the answer but unfortunately, it did does not always finish the mission when people like Garibaldi are up against Metternich.
            Killing innocent people is always going to be inhumane but at least Robbes Pierre found control over the French; meanwhile, and Mazinni and Garibaldi were innovative in their ideas, but in the realist era, they should have sacrificed some peace to fulfill future unification. The French revolution eventually paid off, while the Italian unification was less harmful but has still left strings undone; therefore, it should be learned that peacemaking could not be the optimum plan to succeed at this large task. Robbes Pierre, however, was past a realist, maybe a surrealist, because he killed people that would not help his position in any way. Ultimately, there is a place for making peace and there is a time for violence, but an infusion of both may be the best solution in many of these historical events. 

Tuesday, March 15, 2011

terms for Age of Realpolitik

  • realpolitik-political manifestation of realism-romanticism had been considered utopian and not to be trusted-pipe dreams

  • Crimean War- 1853-1856
    • Major cause: dispute between two groups of Christians over privileges in the Holy Land (Palestine)
    • a. 1852 Turks controlled Palestine agreed to Napoleon III"s demands to provide enclaves in the Holy Land for the protection of Roman Catholic religious orders
    • minor war
    • first war covered by journalists
    • first war to involve female nurses
    • 1853-Nocholas 1 moves troops to romania
    • at the time, romania was split into two 
    • Britain and france join with the turks against russia
    • britain and france allied
    • russia cut off from trade and rest of Europe

  • Florence Nightingale
    • British nurse who became a pioneer in modern nursing
    • b. During the Crimean War more men died of disease rather than by combat wounds,
    • Nightengale's "Light Brigade" superbly tended to wounded men during the war, although fatalities during to disease remained high
  • Second French Republic-
    • Constitution: unicameral legislature (National assembly); strong executive power; popularly elected president of the Republic
    • Universal male suffrage
    • president Louis Napoleon: seen by voters as a symbol of stability and greatness
    • dedicated to law and order, opposed to socialism and radicalism, and favored the conservative classes--the Church, army, property-owners, and business
  • Second French Empire
    • emporer Napoleon III: took control o gov. in Coup d'ete (december 1851) and became emperor the following year

  • Emperor Napoleon III:
  • Baron
  • Georges con Haussmann
    • infrastructure: railroads, canals, roads, reveloped
  • Credit Mobilier
    • banking: funded industrial and infrastructure growth
  • the syllabus of Errors
    • pope Pius IX issued Syllabus of Errors (1864), condemning liberalism
  • italian unification
    • after collapse of revolution of 1848-49, unification movement in Tialy shifted to Sardinia-Piedmont under King Victor Emmanuel, Count Cavour and Garibaldi
  • Falloux Law
    • Louis Napoleon returned control of education to the Church (in return for its support)
  • "LIberal Empire"
    • by initiating a series of reforms
    • napoleon III's rule
    • made model for political leaders in europe
    • demonstrated how govt could reconcile popular and conservative forces trough authoritarian nationalism
  • Count Cavour
    • served as King Victor's Emmanuel's prime minister between 1852 and 1861
    • essentially a moderate nationlist and aristocratic liberal
    • replaced the earlier failed unification revolutionaries
  • "Il risorgimento"
    • a newspaper arguing 
    • ardinia should be the foundation of a new unified italy
  • Plomberes
  • Giusepper Garibaldi, Red Shirts
    • liberated southern Italy and sicily
  • Humiliation of Olmutz
    • 1849, austria had blocked the attempt of frederick 
    • William IV of Prusia to unifiy Germany "From above"
  • Zollverain
    • zollverein (German suntans union), 
  • Kleindeutch pan
    • a unified Hermany without Austria was seen as the most practicable means of unification among various German states, particularly Prussia
  • Otto von Bismark
    • led the drive for a Prussian-based Hohenzollern Germany
    • Junker bakcground; obsessed with power
  • "Gape Theory"
  • "Blood and iron"
  • Prussian-Danish War, 1863
  • Austro-Prussian War 1866
    • Bismarck sought a localized War
    • made diplomatic preparations for war with Austria by negotiating with France, Italy, and Russia for noninterference
  • German Parliament-Reishtag
    • bicameral
  • Bundestag
    • the lower house had representatives elected by universal male suffrage
  • Franco-Prussian War
  • Austro-Prussian Empire
  • Ausgleich

POlitics in the "Long 19th Century" 1789-1914

  • French Revolution and Napoleon 1789-1815
    • nat'l assemlbly
    • legislative assembly
    • nat'l convention
    • Directory
    • Consulate
    • Empire
  • Age of metternich
    • Concert of Europe
    • Revolutions of 1830 and 1848
    • Reforms in Birtain
    • LIberalism/nationalism vs. conservatism
    • Romanticism
  • Age of Reaoplitik
    • Second French empire
    • Crmean War
    • Unification of Germany
    • Unification of Italy
    • Aus
  • Age of Mass politics
http://history.berkeley.edu/faculty/Anderson/H275B.001/

Monday, March 14, 2011

Thinkers of the enlightenment pondered divine revelation within human beings and their individual take on God's actions. In the Romantic era, however, nature is often thought of separately than God. Ideologies of atheism and gothic mindsets came about through poetry and art and revolution in the soul was brought upon in Romantic music. Where as the enlightenment brought about new ideas that challenged the brains moral thoughts, Romanticism aimed to strike the soul which was a place never publicized before. It is most important to recognize that the apparent significance of God and his preoccupation within people's actions is abscent in Romanticism, because all advances are made throughout the era through inspiration that is nature rather than divine. The experimentation away from religion and towards natural inspiration was the key ingredient for people to get away from the structure of divine enlightenment thinking and towards the most poignant works  of art, poetry, and music created in the Romantic era.
Art in the Romantic era was successful for artists such as  Blake, Delacroix, and Turner, because they transferred their own personal emotions into heartrending works let each viewer take a personal interpretation of the work. In Lady Liberty Leading the People by Delacroix, the contours of the figures in the art are on a diagonal towards Lady Liberty. This strikes movement in the viewer's perceptions, and the vibrancy of the colors strikes emotion in the subject. with this work, people could look at the painting and get a sense of the significance of freedom from their own souls and not the mathematical mind of an artist. In Turner's Slave Ship, not one straight, clean edge appears in the masterpiece. Instead, there is a fogginess about the work that allows for colors to infuse together and create a picture easily understood by the eye. It's lack of exact drawing, however, lends people the opportunity for free interpretation. In William Blake's watercolor of a woman in a white dress laying upside down on a bed, with Satan grinning next to her, and a white horse peering anxiously into the room, a person gets a sense of romance   and harsh emotion between the purity and corruption. Almost every grown person that looks at the painting can be reminded of an event of corruption that renders their soul. The devil was such a feared entity in this time, and a piece like this brings about honesty yet equal emotional sarcasm in the idea. Romantic art is not about clarity, rather simplistic washes that can hit every viewer's internal emotions.
Romantic poetry focused often on nature, but also on the loss of touch with religion. The first poignant works of poetry came from this era because peots followed no formula or scheme. Percy Shelley posted a poetic work on the door of a church about being atheist and claiming himself a life like Jesus. This was said to be blasphemy and sins to religions; however, this was also a way for Shelley to get out his emotions in a way that was never expressed before. Elightenment thinkers revolved around God, but Romantic poets traveled within a life within God to see how they were effected; the greatest poetry of all time came from this era because of this. John Keats observed his life and expressed his honesty about his life coming to an end. Ceasing to exist had never been thought about, because with optimistic thoughts in the enlightenment, everyone went to see god in their afterlife. Keats found life in nature and earth much more important, on the contrary, because he knew it well and could express himself within it. Poetry of the Romantic era took ideas of nature and death before God because poets often came to the conclusion that they could not be promised a life after death.
Music of the Romantic era most easily hit the soul, because the mind did not have to be used, rather the heart could listen. Death, life, climax, and conflict were all expressed in Beethoven's symphonies, where crescendos, decrescendos, key changes, and tempo changes were all utilized to tell a store that was different for every person. Franz Shubert and Frederic Chopin gave much of their music these beautiful sound qualities and note patterns that had an immense realm of sadness within them. THese emotions felt from the music are unexplainable most of the time because it is not up to the mind to ponder the sounds. The should of a listener is expertly manipulated in the music so that feelings are felt that have never been felt before and memories are brought back that hit ricochet through the human frame. It had never been identified before that music could be made foremost for the heart of the people and not for the commission of a profession. Most importantly, music was made by theses composers through natural inspiration and strictly not by divine inspiration.
The visual aspect of art, the visual and auditory aspects of poetry, and the auditory aspect of music in the Romantic era was superior to any new thought that came through the Enlightenment, because the natural imagination of the body and soul of a person was encouraged with Romanticism. The art allowed for people to interpret the given scenes that portrayed constant motion. Poetry of the Romantic era put words into place that hit the soul in a way that was addicting because it was far against what had bee publicized before. Music, finally had life-changing qualities because it was made from natural inspiration that all listeners could understand. The enlightenment was full of thoughts that were in minute transition from culture of Europe, but the ideas of the Romantics set aside any hint of political, social, and economic factors that often structures a population.

Saturday, March 12, 2011

rough draft 1


By the early 20th century, women were beginning to experience minute intimations of civil equality, and because of the First World War, jobs were opening up for women, but it would take countless alterations for women to fairly change their status. The feminist movement based itself around equating women’s political, social, and economic rights to men. One perpetual observation of the feminist movement is that women changed their clothing silhouettes correspondingly, and as a result; the fashion plunges also changed the view of women. Women wanted their clothes to radiate independence and control without showing their subjugation from men any longer. As women took faith in their self-reliance, feminine clothing would evolve with new practical trends that men could not direct. In the early 20th century, European women of the feminist movement were gaining attention through protests for women’s rights, but the most powerful protest was the visual demonstration of women’s independence through the revolutionary clothing designs of Gabrielle Chanel and Madeleine Vionnet.
            To fathom the essence and work of Chanel and Vionnet, certain works should be well read. The Collection of the Kyoto Costume Institute of Fashion; A History from the 18th to the 20th Century, is a fashion textbook written by a collection of authors that covers major designers from the 18th century to the 20th century. This textbook full of primary photographs and encyclopedic facts is used as a school textbook for major fashion schools such as Parson School for Design. Gabrielle Chanel and Madeleine Vionnet were both well included in this compiled work. Then, for Chanel, an essay in reaction to Chanel, novels with quoted Chanel, and other photographs were used to gain information on Chanel. For Madeline Vionnet, another compiled work and quoted material was utilized and a journal written in response to a Vionnet exhibit. Both Gabrielle Chanel and Madeline Vionnet lead impressive enough lives to have these numerous works written about them. 
            There are numerous terms significant and unique to fashion that these designers were dealing with in their height of production. Feminism is explained by The Oxford Dictionary as the advocacy of womens rights on the grounds of political, social, and economic equality to men. Gabrielle Chanel and Madeleine Vionnet created clothes that encouraged feminism in ways that were unexpected by men. The clothes of these designers were practical for all women, but eventually Chanel and Vionnet became famous enough to own their own design corporations of fashion houses as Haute Couture designers. Haute Couture clothing is considered to be high-quality products sold through supreme fashion houses that Chanel and Vionnet ran in Paris (Oxford). CoCo Chanel was inspired by minimalist dress of flappers who cut their hair short and wore straight fitting dresses for dancing in the early 1900s (Thames & Hudson). Vionnet was best known for her drapery: The art of creating a dress or garment simply by arranging fabric around a body using the natural fall of the fabric and techniques like pleating, gathering” (Bland New York). It was through these specific inspirations and techniques, that Chanel and Vionnet became the head of two of the most successful fashion houses in their time.
         The turn into the 20th century brought upon a revolutionary change in women’s clothes away from the whalebone, constricting corset, towards a fit to the natural shape of a woman.  French designer of the 1920’s, Gabrielle CoCo Chanel (1883-1971) found it necessary for women’s clothing to be functional and youthful as women were finding more work opportunities in society (Picardie 69). Through women’s suits, men’s inspired clothing, and the famous little black dress, Chanel made a mark for women in the feminist movement. Letting women take control of their image, despite the standards of men:
         “It was she who brought sense and comfort to female
          clothes, shifting their control from the viewer to the
          wearer, from how clothes looked to men to how they
          felt to women.” (Updike 466)
Through Chanel flapper minimalist inspiration, she was urged to do away with heavy weight and complexity of the clothing of the time (Updike). Chanel explained “Some women want to be gripped inside their clothes, never. I want women to enter my dresses and to hell with everything else,” because Chanel did not want the beauty of clothing to be a hindrance to a woman’s daily life (Wallach). Overall, the designs of Chanel were practical and logical to make a woman feel good about herself and to show how she wished to be taken by men (Wallach).
            American Vogue considered Chanel “The Ford of Fashion” because she came up with a realistic fashion science that affected nearly every woman in the first half of the 1900’s (American Vogue). This phrase by American Vogue took the successful, universally known masculine name and applied it to a woman; this is one of many experiences where Chanel accomplished gaining equality to men.For the feminists, Chanel sought to found issues in her everyday-life that she felt applied to other women that could be resolved in her future designs (Picardie). For example, during WWI, Chanel made her clothing waterproof with deep pockets and raisable cuffs so that women could still shop despite the absence of transportation (Picardie). Then, after spending time on the beaches of the Riviera, Chanel thought to put straps on a cork sole and make sandals (Picardie). Therefore, it was not just about designing for herself, because Chanel found that every European woman could benefit through the help of her new designs
         It was not only external issues that Chanel seeked to resolve in her clothing; it was also her wish to let clothing compensate for feminine self consciousness in a way that was not restricting (Madeson). Once when walking into a gala of wealthy people that she had to make an impression on, Chanel explained “my timid entrance, my awkwardness which contrasted with a wonderfully simple white dress, attracted people’s attention” (Picardie 70). On this occasion, Chanel realized that the wealthy women in the room, who revolved around showing off their assets of wealth, were alarmed by Chanel’s unexpected appearance. It was the new shocking simplicity of her attire that the women did not expect to catch so much attention (Picardie). Another shocking aspect of Chanel’s early designs was that they proved that Chanel made choices about her image that was independent of the men in her life; in fact, the double “C” in the Chanel symbol came from a clash Chanel had with her boyfriend, boy Capel (Hirst). The diverging “C’”s are even today a universally known symbol, but underneath the fame it a story the reiterates how Chanel and her clothes are symbols of feminine self-government (Picardie). 
            In 1917, Gabrielle was invited to an opera with her friends, and in the disastrous event of getting dressed and accidentally exploding the gas burner in her bathroom CoCo settled for a little black dress (Wallach). In the explosion, Chanel’s white dress was engulfed in soot and her hair was fried. Chanel cut her waist-length hair up to her chin and impulsively grabbed a black dress but was astonished to find incredible youth in the new look. “With bobbed hair and a little black dress, Chanel was neither slave girl nor wife, but something of her own making” (Percardie). Chanel claimd that everyone at the Opera was looking at her, they were impressed that “the darling of the English became the beauty of Paris” (Picardie 87). With this coincidental situation, Chanel made famous an eternally timeless dress that can draw exciting attention for women in almost any occasion.
            The man behind the Chanel symbol, Chanel’s true love of the time, Boy Capel, died in a sudden car accident in 1919; Chanel mourns by wearing black (Hirst). Chanel persevered through the mourning of Capel “out of the past and into the future, wearing black as a symbol of strength and freedom” (Pircardie 93). Then the black dress turned into the chicest garment of the decade and was considered a uniform as dependable as the Ford automobile in 1926 by American Vogue (American Vogue).Chanel was from then an independent woman and symbol; she never married and proved that she could make a successful, famous living through her determination and revolutionary designs that sparked a notion in feminism. Chanel concluded about her little black dress: “I imposed black; it’s still going strong today, Black wipes out everything else around” (Wallach).
         Numerous celebrities advocated Chanel’s designs during and past her age; these were successful women advirtising their clothing to display their self-achievements. In 1963, Jackie Kennedy wore a Pink Chanel suit on a presidential visit to Dallas; Kennedy chose the pink suit and hat to radiate the simplicity and elegance that her husband especially admired.It was that day that JFK was shot and killed in the parade. Jackie Kennedy’s suit was stained with blood and endured the shocking tragedy of the day along with her (Figure 3). By the end of the same day Kennedy walked with the hurse of her husband, wearing the same chanel suit that was now stained with her husband’s blood (picardie 289). From then on, Jackie Kennedy became a universal symbol of women’s strength and her Chanel suit has gone down in history with it. Other powerful symbols that accentuated the success of Chanel are women such as Marilyn Monroe and Elizabeth Taylor. Marilyn Monroe famously wore Chanel’s top selling perfume, Chanel No. 5 (Figure 4). Elizabeth Taylor wore the quilted Chanel suit and sported the quilted Chanel for advertisements as well. All of these women were strong women in society who were able to make fortunes equal to men and who loved Chanel’s clothing for accentuating their capabilities (Picardie).
            Chanel died in 1971, but her fashion house is still a top running Haute Couture line. Chanel brought her company to that height of success because she did not let her gender altercate with her ideas. She once explained, “How many cares one loses when one decides not to be something but to be someone” (Karbo). Therefore, Chanel wished to express this idea through her clothing, that once a woman loses her self-consciousness in their clothing, many major tensions that allow male dominance would be weakened. Through her fearlessness to express only true feeling, seen in the little black dress, Grabrielle Chanel could perfect her designs to protest these real feminine feelings. At one point, Chanel was the richest self-made woman in the world, but Chanel continued to do much of the design labor herself even in her later years, because it was her mind showing through in her designs that gave a woman supreme carelessness to social tensions (Updike).
            Madeleine Vionnet was a revolutionary French designer in the 1920’s who believed that clothing should make one effortless statement that gave women natural grace. Her simplistic clothing flats realized to drape upon the natural shape of like a soft glaze encapsulating a woman (Taschen 404).With this, Vionnet excluded any fabric and stitching that took away from the curves of the female body in her designs (Arnold). After viewing an early exhibit of Vionnet’s work, novice designer, Issey Miywake, expressed,
 The impression was similar to the wonder one feels at
 the sight of a woman emerging from bathing, draped
only in a sinlge piece of beautiful cloth. It was probably
awe some the realization that her basic concept of the
relationship between the body and cloth is the bases of
all clothing. Vionnet’s clothes transcended her time. (Miyake, 12)
By cutting down on distracting intricacies on the surface of her garments, Vionnet could embrace pure romanticism by allowing “emotions and human nature” complete the dress (Miyake, 13). Vionnet grounded this idea most securely in her skill of drapery hung to maximize the fluidity of women’s movement (Arnold). Then Vionnet also became famous for her extremely difficult “bias cut,” that cut the elastic in fabric to cling to a woman (Costume). Because the designs of Vionnet forced a woman to be bold and honest about her natural figure, she became a world-renowned innovator for feminine dynamism.
            When Madeliene Vionnet moved to the fashion house of Callot Soeurs in 1900, she began to experiment with what would make her uniquely significant to feminists: draping (Arnold). In this environment, Vionnet worked with real models instead of relying on her imagination translated onto paper first. Vionnet’s clothing could then be exclusive to the woman wearing it, personalizing the expression of her own body type while maximizing her comfort in the garment. Now, the priority of women designing their figures came before the etching of a molded figure onto a design sketch. Vionnet explained, “It is pity to go against nature…The best control is the natural one” (Madeleine vionnet). Vionnet was exceptional at using her drapery to give ease to pivotal points in the human figure while keeping others still from the viewer’s eye; this gave the appearance of women with healthy, carefree body types (Kirke).
            In the early 1920’s Madeleine Vionnet took her simplistic concepts a step further by keeping her silhouettes sleek while uniquely folding the surface fabrics of her skirts. In this way, the varying textures of fabrics interact and the dresses would appear to be made of many fabrics with various layers, while still accentuating the woman’s figure (Taschen). It in these designs that Vionnet’s Japanese influence and appreciation of origami came through. Symbolically, these Japanese designs that Vionnet was successful with spreading, referenced the traditional Japanese woman.
            In the turn into the 20th century, woman in Japan experienced a peak in their status. They had great patriarchal roles in society and were culturally viewed to have a balanced power to their husbands (Status). In Japan, the idea of equality far different than the Western world; the Japanese viewed equality between genders as the “balance of advantage, opportunity, and responsibility over time” (Iwao). Through the infusion of oriental techniques in her designs, Madeleine Vionnet could make this statement towards reaching equality based on achievement rather than gender. Through Vionnet, women’s clothes not only evolved with their increasing role in society, but purpose of the clothing also stated that women were willing to take the opportunities and responsibilities that men were filling.
            Vionnet was most famous for coming up with her signature cutting technique known as the “bias cut” of fabric. The bias cut is described as a cut across the grain of fabric that lays the elastic strands of fabric vertically (Figure 1). Fabric can be pulled along its yarns or strands to be stretched, but when the fabric is pulled at an exact forty-five degree angle between the intersecting strands, its bias, Vionnet discovered that the fabric will stretch even more noticeably, especially when hung vertically. After this discovery, Madeleine Vionnet continued to adjust the weight of the fabric by laying it in checkerboard patterns so that the fabric would not be distorted with gravity and the bias would elegantly ripple (Figure 2).  On the Torso, elastic strands will cling to the garment wearer, and the dress becomes form fitting, while permitting movement with the figure’s natural curves. Ultimately, this technical cut that designers today often choose not to tackle, was formfitting to a woman’s torso while the rippling in the skirt fabric played agreeably with the movement of a woman (Kirke). “When one knows one’s craft, one takes [pulls] a piece of fabric…in every possible direction,” as Vionnet explained, so that a design can be perfected and dedicated to the prevailing figure of a woman (Dorsey). 
Vionnet knew herself, her clients, and her fabrics well enough to purposefully design for the body rather than for social standards. It is logical to think of the body in its structure and anatomy when designing; however, Vionnet came to think of the body as collection “concave” and “convex” areas. With this, Vionnet made clothes that “fit well, moved well, and possessed aesthetic elegance beyond its two-dimensional form” (Kirke). Vionnet often stood quietly in the background of her shows, but she was a revolutionary with her designs that spoke of equality, honesty, and elegance, helping women gain these standings during the European feminist movement (Miyake).
            Because leading designers Chanel and Vionnet changed the way women were viewed with their daily dress, the feminist movement was catalyzed through visual representation. Like Grecian Godesses, woman could choose to wear whimsical dresses that expressed the virtue and capacity of the natural woman (Taschen). Also, the body language and body image of a woman is a major tool in getting across an honest impression and significant impact to the standard of men. Women protesting to work, vote, and join parliament in the feminist movement would not be able to follow through with their intentions wearing restrictive corset dresses. Fortunately, designers like Chanel and Vionnet recognized this incongruence and worked to help women during the movement. The aid of these two designers did not just support the movement however; it guided the everyday life of a woman to become a testament of feminine detachment from the leash of men. Women learned to move freely in their clothing as well as through the social eye while they wore clothing that fitted their own needs and not the needs of viewing males. It was Gabrielle Chanel and Madeleine Vionnet that clarified the definition of control when it came to a woman clothing her figure (Updike).
            The 19th century experienced rapid changes of the image of a woman because Gabrielle Chanel and Madeleine Vionnet were not hesitant about standing up for the equality of gender.
Through Chanel, simplistic and even menswear clothing was designed to express superior feminine beauty. The logistics of wearing comfortable clothes that accentuated a woman in a natural way finally became tangible through Chanel (Taschen).  Then through Vionnet, women could sport their sensuality without materialistic structuring, as the dresses gripped to the unique and natural structures of the body. The form of a woman was perceptible in a way that was never accepted to be publicly visible before (Kirke). Both women sought to search beyond the heavy layers of fabric that women were required to wear to find the true skin of a woman that could be exceptional in its beauty when smoothed in their designs. Clothing did not grant women direct freedoms, but its constant protuberance of protest catalyzed the revolutionary changes in the European feminist movement.



Arnold, Rebecca. (n.d.). Madeleine Vionnet. Encyclopedia of clothing        and fashion.
Bland new york. (n.d.). Retrieved from      http://blendnewyork.com/fashion-dictionary/draping.htm
Capote, Truman. Coco cahnel. Portraits and Observations (pp. 220-   221). New York: Random House.
Coco chanel. (1920). American Vogue.
Costume, (1975) Costume society of england/London (vol. 9)
de la Haye, Amy. (2005). Chanel, Gabrielle (CoCo). Gale virtual       resources library. Retrieved March 12, 2011, from    http://go.galegroup.com
Dorsey, Hebe. (1973, February 02). International Herald Tribune,
Hirst, Gwendoline. (n.d.). Chanel 1883-1971. Informally   published manuscript, BA Education, Retrieved from  
       http://www.ba-education.com/for/fashion/chanel.html
Iwao, S. (1993). The japanese women: Traditional image and changing reality. New York, NY:   The Free Press.
Karbo, K. (2009). The gospel according to coco chanel. Morris Publishing Group.
Kirke, B. (1998). Madeleine Vionnet. San Francisco: Chronicle Books.
Madeleine vionnet. (1924, February 24). The New York Times.
Madsen, Axel. (1991). Chanel: a woman of her own. Holt Paperbacks.
Miyake, Issey. (1998). Foreward. Madeleine Vionnet (pp. 12-14).
Oxford dictionary. (n.d.). . Retrieved from        http://oxforddictionaries.com/?attempted=true
Picardie, Justine. (2010). Coco chanel the legend and the life.   London: HarperCollinsPublisher
"Status and Role Change Among Japanese Women” - Associated Content from Yahoo!
Taschen, Initials. (Ed.). The collection of the kyoto costume institute fashion a history from the 18th to the 20th century.
Thames and Hudson, Initials. (Ed.). (2008). The thames & hudson     dictionary of fashion and fashion designers. Singapore: CS    Graphics Pte Ltd.
Updike, John. (2007). Gabrielle "coco" chanel. In A Knopf (Ed.),      Due Considerations (pp. 465-470). New York: Random House.
Wallach , Janet. (1998). Chanel: her style and her life. Nan. A Talese.
                                              Appendix
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Sunday, March 6, 2011

Draft 2 outline


1)   Thesis- In the early 20th century, European women of the feminist movement were gaining attention through protests for women’s rights, but the most powerful protest was the visual demonstration of women’s independence through the revolutionary clothing designs of Gabrielle Chanel and Madeleine Vionnet.

2)   By the early 20th century, women were beginning to experience civil equality, and because of the first World War, jobs were opening up for women, but it would take many alterations for women to change their status.
a)   Clothing silhouettes changed with the events of the feminist movement.
b)   Women wanted to show independence in their dress rather than their loyalty to men with clothing that fitted a man’s liking.
c)    As women anticipated amends to their role in society, their clothing would evolve with new practical silhouettes that displayed a sense of control and self reliance.

3)   The turn of the century into the early 1900’s produced a revolutionary changed in women’s clothes away from the whale-bone, constricting corset. 
a)   French designer, Gabrielle Chanel felt is was necessary for women’s clothing to be functional and youthful as women were finding more work opportunities in society (Picardie 69).
b)   Madeleine Vionnet then advanced upon these ideas by producing simplistic clothing flats that were draped around the natural shape of a woman to display an air of brevity and openness that brought about strength in women (Taschen 404).

4) There are numerous terms significant and unique to fashion that these designers were dealing with in their height of production
a) feminism- “The advocacy of women’s rights on the grounds of political, social, and economic equality to men” (Oxford).
i) Women’s fashion effects the social side of this protest for equality.
ii) the everyday look of a woman was a constant protest backing the self-rule of women.
b) Haute Couture- “The designing and making of high-quality fashionable clothes by leading fashion houses” (Oxford).
i) each of these designers eventually gained supremacy to be famous Haute Couture designers of their time.
ii) Their practical clothing became successful enough to be the new Haute Couture.
c) Stencil- Printed clothing- A technique used by Gallenga where she used a cut out pattern that was painted over and died into the fabric of her dresses.
i) this added to he renaissance designs
ii) it was unique to her and distinguishable from other designs
c)    draping-“The art of creating a dress or garment simply by arranging fabric around a body using the natural fall of the fabric and techniques like pleating, gathering” (Fashion Dictionary).
        i) Sources used
ii) essays written about designers
iii)quotes from the designers
iv)photos and paintings of the designers and their works

1)   CoCo Chanel 1883-1971- Gabrielle (CoCo) Chanel became famous in the 1920’s for sparking an evolution of the blasé, working woman in her designs.
a)   “It was she who brought zense and comfort to female clothes, shifting their control from the viewer to the wearer, from how clothes looked to men to how they felt to women” (Updike 466).
i)     Women take control of their image
ii)    Despite the standards of men
b)   Chanel was inspired by flapper minimalism and was urged to take do away with heavy weight and complexity of the clothing of the time (Updike).
i)     When women would walk into the boutique with extravagant hats and corsets, she would ask “How can the brain function in those things?” (Updike 467).
ii)    Chanel explained “Some women want to be gripped inside their clothes, never. I want women to enter my dresses and to hell with everything else” (Wallach).
c)    Janet Wallch explained after seeing Chanel’s work, “All is practical all is logical, all is done to mae a woman feel good about herself.”
i)     This is how women wished to be seen by men
ii)    The image of women is no longer overwhelmed and hidden by layers of expensive, lavish gowns of the 19th century.

2)   American Vogue considered Chanel “The Ford of Fashion” because she mastered the designing of the real woman.
a)   This phrase takes the successful man’s name and applies it to a woman.
b)   When Chanel found issues in her everyday-life that she felt applied to other women as well, she would search to resolve the issues in her clothing.
i)     During WWI, Chanel made her clothing waterproof with deep pockets and raisable cuffs so that women could still shop despite the absence of transportation.
ii)    While walking on the beaches of the Riviera, Chanel though to put straps on a cork sole and make sandals.
iii)  It was all about comfort and blithe while still looking elegant.   
c)    Chanel felt that her clothing compensated for any sensitivities and self conscious tendencies that she felt.
i)     Once when walking into a gala of wealthy people that she had to make an impression on, she explained, “my timid entrance, my awkwardness which contrasted with a wonderfully simple white dress, attracted people’s attention” (Picardie 70).
ii)    On this occasion, Chanel realized that the wealthy women in the room, who revolved around showing off their assets of wealth, were alarmed by Chanel’s unexpected appearance.
iii)  Some of Chanel’s most successful designs that progressed the position of a woman were the little black dress and the woman’s suit.
d)   The double C in the Chanel symbol came from a clash Chanel had with her boyfriend, Boy Capel; because both of their names began with C and Chanel wanted to illustrate that she was independent of him.

3)   In 1917, Gabrielle was invited to a opera with her friends, and in the disastrous event of getting dressed and accidentally exploding the gas burner in her bathroom CoCo settled for a little black dress.
a)   In the explosion, Chanel’s white dress was engulfed in soot and her hair was fried.
i)     Chanel cut her waist-length hair up to her chin and impulsively grabbed a black dress but was astonished to find incredible youth in the new look.
ii)    “With bobbed hair and a little black dress, Chanel was neither slave girl nor wife, but something of her own making” (Percardie).
iii)  Chanel claimd that everyone at the Opera was looking at her, they were impressed that “the darling of the English became the beauty of Paris” (Picardie 87).
b)   Chanel’s true love of the time, Boy Capel, died in a car accident in 1919 and Chanel continued to mourn in black.
c)    Then the black dress turned into the chicest garment of the decade and was considered a uniform as dependable as the Ford automobile in 1926 by American Vogue.
d)   Chanel perservered through the mourning of Capel “out of the past and into the future, wearing black as a symbol of strength and freedom” (Pircardie 93).
i)     Chanel was then an independent woman
ii)    Chanel: “I imposed black; it’s still going strong today, Black wipes out everything else around.”

4)   Numerous celebrities sported Chanel’s designs during and past her age; these were successful women allowing their clothing to display their self-achievements
a)   In 1963, Jackie Kennedy wore a Pink Chanel suit on a presidential visit to Dallas, Kennedy chose the pink suit and hat to radiate the simplicity and elegance that her husband especially admired.
i)     It was that day that JFK was shot and killed in the parade.
ii)    Jackie Kennedy’s suit was stained with blood and endured the tradegy of losing her husband.
iii)  On that same day, Kennedy walked with the hurse of her husband, wearing the same chanel suit that was now stained with her husband’s blood (picardie 289).
b)   Marilyn Monroe famously wore Chanel’s top selling perfume, Chanel No. 5.
c)    Elizabeth Taylor wore the quilted Chanel suit and sported the quilted Chanel handbag.
d)   All of these women were strong women in society who were able to make fortunes equal to men and who loved Chanel’s clothing for accentuating their capabilities.

5)   Madeleine Vionnet was a french designer in the 1920’s who believed that “when a woman smiles, then her dress should smile too.”
a)   Vionnet excluded any entities that took away from the natural curves of the female body in her designs.
b)   Vionnet also designed with simplistic silhouettes that were intricate in their draping and cutting to maximize fluidity along the female figure.
c)    Her clothes accentuated the movement of women and was inspired by Greek Art where clothing draped above the body and moved with its natural movement.
d)   Becuase she did not believe in mechanically molding the shape of a women’s body, Vionnet became a world renowned designer and innovator for feminine dynamism.

6)   Madeliene Vionnet movd to the fashion house of Callot Soeurs in 1900, she began to experiment with what would make her famous: draping.
a)   In the fashion house, Vionnet could work with real models rather than designing on paper.
i)     This allowed for Vionnet to design with the body and began drapping fabric along the natural curves of women.
ii)    By designing directly on a woman, Madeleine Vionnet was able to construct clothing that gave women the ability to personalize their comfort and maximize the comfort in the garments.
b)   Vionnet was later inspired by the Japanese Kimono silhouette, and gave her designs deep armholes and large sleeves for chic comfort.
i)     She used origami in folding her fabric to add dynamic interactions on the surface of her gowns.
ii)    The simplistic look of the designs covered up the complexity of the artistic folding of fabric
c)    With these techniques together, Vionnet moved away from cutting and tailoring, wrapping and draping.
i)     Maximized the flexibility of the dresses and gave women the ability to do everyday activities in the gowns.
ii)    Vionnet allowed for her designs to appear simplistic, but to be complexly decorated as to not take away from the flexibility of the cloth.
d)   In Vionnet’s clothes, women looked natural and had many liberties in their movements to compensate for their upcoming opportunities in society.

7)   Vionnet was most famous for coming up with her signature cutting technique known as the “bias cut” of fabric.
a)   The bias cut is a cut across the grain of fabric that lays the elastic strands of fabric vertically to fall onto the form of the wearer.
b)   With this, the fabric would cling to the woman and would move with her natural curves.
c)    The revolutionary cut was body-slimming to a woman’s figure.
d)   Women can show their integrity in Vionnet’s bias cut clothes because the garments are naturally hugging their figure rather than constricting and molding it to look up the standard.

9. Because leading designers Chanel and Vionnet changed the way women were viewed with their daily dress, the feminist movement was greatly catalyzed and aid with visual representation.
a. Like Grecian Godesses, woman could choose to wear whimsical dresses that expressed the virtue and capacity of the natural woman.
b. a woman protesting to work, vote, and join parliament would not be able to prove her capability while sporting a constricting corset that proved obedience to masculine standards.
c. Through Chanel, implistic and even menswear clothing was designed to express superior feminine beauty, and through Vionnet, women could sport their sensuality without materialistic structuring.
Both women sought to search beyond the heavy layers of fabric that women were required to wear to find the true beauty of a woman and to present it to the world.

10. Clothing did not grant women direct freedoms, but its constant protuberance of protest catalyzed the revolutionary changes in the European feminist movement.

Sources
Arnold, Rebecca. (n.d.). Madeleine Vionnet. Encyclopedia of clothing and fashion.
Bland new york. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://blendnewyork.com/fashion-dictionary/draping.htm
Capote, Truman. Coco cahnel. Portraits and Observations (pp. 220- 221). New York: Random House.
Karlo, K. (2009). The gospel according to coco chanel. Morris Publishing Group.
Oxford dictionary. (n.d.). . Retrieved from http://oxforddictionaries.com/?attempted=true
Picardie, Justine. (2010). Coco chanel the legend and the life. London: HarperCollinsPublisher
Tachen, Initials. (Ed.). The collection of the kyoto costume institute fashion a history from the 18th to the 20th century.
Thames and Hudson, Initials. (Ed.). (2008). The thames & hudson dictionary of fashion and fashion designers. Singapore: CS Graphics Pte Ltd.
Updike, John. (2007). Gabrielle "coco" chanel. In A Knopf (Ed.), Due Considerations (pp. 465-470). New York: Random House.




Update thesis

By the early 20th century, women were beginning to experience minute intimations of civil equality, and because of the first World War, jobs were opening up for women, but it would take countless alterations for women to fairly change their status. On the terms of equating women’s political social and economic right to men, the feminist movement illuminated in this era. One perpetual observation of the feminist movement is that women changed their clothing silhouettes correspondingly, and as a result, the fashion plunges also changed the view of a women. Women wanted their clothes to radiate independence and control without showing their subjugation from men any longer. As women took faith in their self reliance, feminine clothing would evolve with new practical trends that men could not direct. In the early 20th century, European women of the feminist movement were gaining attention through protests for women’s rights, but the most powerful protest was the visual demonstration of women’s independence through the revolutionary clothing designs of Gabrielle Chanel and Madeleine Vionnet.

Friday, March 4, 2011

industrial revolution

Between 1815 and 1848, there was a movement of conservative, liberal, and national protests becuase the Industrial Revolution changed the population like never before. The increase in jobs and scientific thought brought about a mobile workforce that crowded the cities. Then because wages were lowered and women and children did not need to be paid as much, women and children took the place of working men in many dangerous factories. With the Industrial Revolution coincided an Agricultural revolution because there was a need for food to compensate for the growing populations. Thomas Malthus effectively explained in relation to these issues that population growth would exceed arithmetic food growth and nature would have to interject to stabilize the population. Conservatives and nationalists maintained the population before the biological capacity was exceeded, while Liberals were harmful to the sustainability of Europe in this time when populations were already mass reproducing.
            Conservatives of the Industrial Revolution, such as Metternich on Austria, were sometimes harsh and oppressive, but they were righteous in maintaining their countries’ populations. Metternich had to keep control over Germany and Prussia because if he let either of them raise their own country, then they could become dominant and expansive. There were already shortages of food such as with the Irish potatoe famine and the corn laws in England, because middle class populations were expanding in cities and cottage industries did not supply these workers their own food. If Metternich had given Germany initial independence, then he was risking that Germany would grow without moderation or consideration of the natural environment. Each nationality of people in the time deserved to be independent, but its actions could not be taken too quickly because the environment would calapse without being able to support the growing populations.
            Liberals such as people wanting to reform the Corn Laws of England and increase universal suffrage for men were legitimate in their reasonings, but these fast changes would also contribute to increasing the population. The corn laws were made because England could not manage its food as a result of exceeding population growth. One of Malthus’ biological factors is that shortage of food will kill a population. Liberal men in England, however, wanted to abolish the corn laws to allow for people to get better amounts and distributions of food. They should have understood that food was being produced less quickly than children were being born and mouths were opening to be fed; therefore, the time for change in the food industry of England was needed but it was naturaly impossible without grain substitutes.
            Nationalist such as those wanting to get the Ottoman’s out of Greece and the Germans wanting to rise up against Russia, Austria, and Prussia  Greece was able to get the support of Russia, France, and England during this protest and Greece would eventually get their independence; this, however, tied Greece to Russia and its church. Monitoring Greece’s independence was a conservative way for Russia to hold its own power while watching the power of others. Even though this would have been for political reasons, this nationalism of Greece and nationalism of Russia helps maintain the population growth within these countries. With Germany also, people were rising up with young clubs and national folklores to strengthen Germany to become independent. Austria held Germany down while the populations compensated with the Industrial Revolution fortunately because later Germany would be the main force of WWII where their dominance would become worldwide. If that nationalism had been granted in the mid 1800’s, then European society’s could have easily collapsed with German’s accumulating power.
            Liberalism has its reasons and its goodness, but in the sake of time during the Industrial Revolution, Conservatism was the most practical way of retaining the European population. Whether the conservatives were aware of Malthus’ ideas or not, they proved Malthus’ concepts that population growth grows exponentially while food grows arithmetically. Once a population exceed the food production, without enough machinery to compensate, nature will react to quell the population growth. Conservatives, for the most part, beat nature to this harsh reaction, because if liberal revolutions had taken place, then many jobs would be left and populations would rise up in progression, leaving more mouths starving.