Sunday, February 27, 2011

FASHION OUTLINE

1)   Thesis-In the early 20th century, European women of the feminist movement were gaining attention through protests for women’s rights, but the most powerful protest was the visual demonstration of women’s independence through the revolutionary clothing designs of Gabrielle Chanel and Madeleine Vionnet.

2)   By the early 20th century, women were beginning to experience civil equality, and because of the first World War, jobs were opening up for women, but it would take many alterations for women to change their status.
a)   Clothing silhouettes changed with the events of the feminist movement.
b)   Women wanted to show independence in their dress rather than their loyalty to men with clothing that fitted a man’s liking.
c)    As women anticipated amends to their role in society, their clothing would evolve with new practical silhouettes that displayed a sense of control and self reliance.

3)   The turn of the century into the early 1900’s produced a revolutionary changed in women’s clothes away from the whale-bone, constricting corset. 
a)   French designer, Gabrielle Chanel felt is was necessary for women’s clothing to be functional and youthful as women were finding more work opportunities in society (Picardie 69).
b)   Madeleine Vionnet then advanced upon these ideas by producing simplistic clothing flats that were draped around the natural shape of a woman to display an air of brevity and openness that brought about strength in women (Taschen 404).

4) There are numerous terms significant and unique to fashion that these designers were dealing with in their height of production
a) feminism- “The advocacy of women’s rights on the grounds of political, social, and economic equality to men” (Oxford).
i) Women’s fashion effects the social side of this protest for equality.
ii) the everyday look of a woman was a constant protest backing the self-rule of women.
b) Haute Couture- “The designing and making of high-quality fashionable clothes by leading fashion houses” (Oxford).
i) each of these designers eventually gained supremacy to be famous Haute Couture designers of their time.
ii) Their practical clothing became successful enough to be the new Haute Couture.
c) Stencil- Printed clothing- A technique used by Gallenga where she used a cut out pattern that was painted over and died into the fabric of her dresses.
i) this added to he renaissance designs
ii) it was unique to her and distinguishable from other designs
c)    draping-“The art of creating a dress or garment simply by arranging fabric around a body using the natural fall of the fabric and techniques like pleating, gathering” (Fashion Dictionary).
        i) Sources used
ii) essays written about designers
iii)quotes from the designers
iv)photos and paintings of the designers and their works

1)   CoCo Chanel 1883-1971- Gabrielle (CoCo) Chanel became famous in the 1920’s for sparking an evolution of the blasĂ©, working woman in her designs.
a)   “It was she who brought zense and comfort to female clothes, shifting their control from the viewer to the wearer, from how clothes looked to men to how they felt to women” (Updike 466).
i)     Women take control of their image
ii)    Despite the standards of men
b)   Chanel was inspired by flapper minimalism and was urged to take do away with heavy weight and complexity of the clothing of the time (Updike).
i)     When women would walk into the boutique with extravagant hats and corsets, she would ask “How can the brain function in those things?” (Updike 467).
ii)    Chanel explained “Some women want to be gripped inside their clothes, never. I want women to enter my dresses and to hell with everything else” (Wallach).
c)    Janet Wallch explained after seeing Chanel’s work, “All is practical all is logical, all is done to mae a woman feel good about herself.”
i)     This is how women wished to be seen by men
ii)    The image of women is no longer overwhelmed and hidden by layers of expensive, lavish gowns of the 19th century.

2)   American Vogue considered Chanel “The Ford of Fashion” because she mastered the designing of the real woman.
a)   This phrase takes the successful man’s name and applies it to a woman.
b)   When Chanel found issues in her everyday-life that she felt applied to other women as well, she would search to resolve the issues in her clothing.
i)     During WWI, Chanel made her clothing waterproof with deep pockets and raisable cuffs so that women could still shop despite the absence of transportation.
ii)    While walking on the beaches of the Riviera, Chanel though to put straps on a cork sole and make sandals.
iii)  It was all about comfort and blithe while still looking elegant.   
c)    Chanel felt that her clothing compensated for any sensitivities and self conscious tendencies that she felt.
i)     Once when walking into a gala of wealthy people that she had to make an impression on, she explained, “my timid entrance, my awkwardness which contrasted with a wonderfully simple white dress, attracted people’s attention” (Picardie 70).
ii)    On this occasion, Chanel realized that the wealthy women in the room, who revolved around showing off their assets of wealth, were alarmed by Chanel’s unexpected appearance.
iii)  Some of Chanel’s most successful designs that progressed the position of a woman were the little black dress and the woman’s suit.
d)   The double C in the Chanel symbol came from a clash Chanel had with her boyfriend, Boy Capel; because both of their names began with C and Chanel wanted to illustrate that she was independent of him.

3)   In 1917, Gabrielle was invited to a opera with her friends, and in the disastrous event of getting dressed and accidentally exploding the gas burner in her bathroom CoCo settled for a little black dress.
a)   In the explosion, Chanel’s white dress was engulfed in soot and her hair was fried.
i)     Chanel cut her waist-length hair up to her chin and impulsively grabbed a black dress but was astonished to find incredible youth in the new look.
ii)    “With bobbed hair and a little black dress, Chanel was neither slave girl nor wife, but something of her own making” (Percardie).
iii)  Chanel claimd that everyone at the Opera was looking at her, they were impressed that “the darling of the English became the beauty of Paris” (Picardie 87).
b)   Chanel’s true love of the time, Boy Capel, died in a car accident in 1919 and Chanel continued to mourn in black.
c)    Then the black dress turned into the chicest garment of the decade and was considered a uniform as dependable as the Ford automobile in 1926 by American Vogue.
d)   Chanel perservered through the mourning of Capel “out of the past and into the future, wearing black as a symbol of strength and freedom” (Pircardie 93).
i)     Chanel was then an independent woman
ii)    Chanel: “I imposed black; it’s still going strong today, Black wipes out everything else around.”

4)   Numerous celebrities sported Chanel’s designs during and past her age; these were successful women allowing their clothing to display their self-achievements
a)   In 1963, Jackie Kennedy wore a Pink Chanel suit on a presidential visit to Dallas, Kennedy chose the pink suit and hat to radiate the simplicity and elegance that her husband especially admired.
i)     It was that day that JFK was shot and killed in the parade.
ii)    Jackie Kennedy’s suit was stained with blood and endured the tradegy of losing her husband.
iii)  On that same day, Kennedy walked with the hurse of her husband, wearing the same chanel suit that was now stained with her husband’s blood (picardie 289).
b)   Marilyn Monroe famously wore Chanel’s top selling perfume, Chanel No. 5.
c)    Elizabeth Taylor wore the quilted Chanel suit and sported the quilted Chanel handbag.
d)   All of these women were strong women in society who were able to make fortunes equal to men and who loved Chanel’s clothing for accentuating their capabilities.

5)   Madeleine Vionnet was a french designer in the 1920’s who believed that “when a woman smiles, then her dress should smile too.”
a)   Vionnet excluded any entities that took away from the natural curves of the female body in her designs.
b)   Vionnet also designed with simplistic silhouettes that were intricate in their draping and cutting to maximize fluidity along the female figure.
c)    Her clothes accentuated the movement of women and was inspired by Greek Art where clothing draped above the body and moved with its natural movement.
d)   Becuase she did not believe in mechanically molding the shape of a women’s body, Vionnet became a world renowned designer and innovator for feminine dynamism.

6)   Madeliene Vionnet movd to the fashion house of Callot Soeurs in 1900, she began to experiment with what would make her famous: draping.
a)   In the fashion house, Vionnet could work with real models rather than designing on paper.
i)     This allowed for Vionnet to design with the body and began drapping fabric along the natural curves of women.
ii)    By designing directly on a woman, Madeleine Vionnet was able to construct clothing that gave women the ability to personalize their comfort and maximize the comfort in the garments.
b)   Vionnet was later inspired by the Japanese Kimono silhouette, and gave her designs deep armholes and large sleeves for chic comfort.
i)     She used origami in folding her fabric to add dynamic interactions on the surface of her gowns.
ii)    The simplistic look of the designs covered up the complexity of the artistic folding of fabric
c)    With these techniques together, Vionnet moved away from cutting and tailoring, wrapping and draping.
i)     Maximized the flexibility of the dresses and gave women the ability to do everyday activities in the gowns.
ii)    Vionnet allowed for her designs to appear simplistic, but to be complexly decorated as to not take away from the flexibility of the cloth.
d)   In Vionnet’s clothes, women looked natural and had many liberties in their movements to compensate for their upcoming opportunities in society.

7)   Vionnet was most famous for coming up with her signature cutting technique known as the “bias cut” of fabric.
a)   The bias cut is a cut across the grain of fabric that lays the elastic strands of fabric vertically to fall onto the form of the wearer.
b)   With this, the fabric would cling to the woman and would move with her natural curves.
c)    The revolutionary cut was body-slimming to a woman’s figure.
d)   Women can show their integrity in Vionnet’s bias cut clothes because the garments are naturally hugging their figure rather than constricting and molding it to look up the standard.

9. Because leading designers Chanel and Vionnet changed the way women were viewed with their daily dress, the feminist movement was greatly catalyzed and aid with visual representation.
a. Like Grecian Godesses, woman could choose to wear whimsical dresses that expressed the virtue and capacity of the natural woman.
b. a woman protesting to work, vote, and join parliament would not be able to prove her capability while sporting a constricting corset that proved obedience to masculine standards.
c. Through Chanel, implistic and even menswear clothing was designed to express superior feminine beauty, and through Vionnet, women could sport their sensuality without materialistic structuring.
Both women sought to search beyond the heavy layers of fabric that women were required to wear to find the true beauty of a woman and to present it to the world.

10. Clothing did not grant women direct freedoms, but its constant protuberance of protest catalyzed the revolutionary changes in the European feminist movement.

Sources
Arnold, Rebecca. "Vionnet, Madeleine." Encyclopedia of Clothing and Fashion. Ed. Valerie Steele.             Vol. 3. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2005. 401-404. Gale Virtual Reference Library.             Web. 27 Feb. 2011.
"Fashion Dictionary - Define Draping - Blendnewyork Fashion Boutique."          Blendnewyork Fashion Boutique - Designer Dresses, Clothing,          Accessories, Art. Web. 27 Feb. 2011.          <http://blendnewyork.com/fashion-dictionary/draping.htm>.
Oxford Dictionary Online. Web          <http://oxforddictionaries.com/?attempted=true>.

Wednesday, February 23, 2011

Conservatives and Liberals

1814-1848-time period where these crucial parties develop

  • 1814-Congress of Vienna meets with the purpose of settling questions of territory and negationations after Napoleon leaves.
    • france-Telleyrand-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Maurice_de_Talleyrand-PĂ©rigord
    • Castlereagh-British
    • austira Metternich
    • Russia-Tzar Alexander
  • these men try to figure out what is going to happen in the wake of Napoleon
  • russia refuses to figure situation for Turkish
  • British refused to look after their relations with colonies and sea trades
  • powers truggles happening with geopolitical concepts
    • russsia refuses to give in to the demands of eastern european 
    • create a system of strong states around the boarders of france
    • austiran netheralnds was transferred to the dutch
      • pleases greate britain because he is allied with the dutch
  • dutch republic changes its name to the Kingdom of the Netherlands 
    • ruled by elite family of the House of Orange
  • austria got most of northern Italy-
  • itlay is not a mar power at this time-influence of church has been greatly diminished 
  • power in spain has also considerably decreased
  • no attempt to restore holy roman empire-
    • no one bothers to pay attention to German Nationalists
  • poland kingdom created from austria and prussia land
    • known as Congress Poland
  • places unified into one but they were ruled by Alexander-Russia now ruled prussia and much of north austria
  • france is gaining back power and reputation
    • louis XVIII returns to france as constitutional monarch
    • Napoleon is banned from ever having any rule or leadership in france
  • Ztar Alexaner-very religious in his thinking-nsisted on a doc. known as the Holy Alliance
    • said that rule over eastern europe was divinely granted-throwbakc to absolute monarchs
    • austria signs on and prussia does too
    • england refuses
      • "sublime mysticism and nonsense"
    • means that alexander has indemnity to squash whoever he wants to
      • which he does
  • if u are even thinking revolutionary thoughts in Alexander's russia, they will send you to syberia
  • powers agreed to meet to address international concerns
    • referred to as Concert of Europe
    • aix-la-chapelle-1818-concert of europe took troops out of france and allowed bankers to handle reperations-cost of war

    • Britain starts to drift out of european nations partly because of their role with slave trade and the new world
  • this post war in the US but britain has holdings in Caribean, hong kong, India
    • has its own thing going on away from continental europe
  • 1819-russians met again in the state of Gallacia and Alexander compose a new alliance called the Protocal of Trapeau-more international interation for peace
    • england refuses
    • prussia joins because russia controls prussia
    • its in the interest to to good to everyone
    • send army into Italy and installl their own king into naples
  • 1821-greece had for a while now been occupied by the Ottoman Turks
    • had overcome greece
    • greeks revolting created a certain dilemma in eastern europe
    • they do not like the turks
    • the Turks had been the major power base of the middle east going back hundreds of years
    • didn't want to upse that balance of power
  • causes under the surface animosity between Austria and Russia
    • greeks feel connected to Russia 
    • but Austria feels supressed by both Russia and Greece
    •  

Tuesday, February 22, 2011

Term Paper Outline

This was done with secondary sources and in two hours to meet your deadline because I am waiting for my expensive primary sources to come in the mail. With them, I will gladly enhance my outline with primary material.
thesis
definitions-use either americanherritage dictionary or oxford english dictionary
-feminism, haute couture, Milan fashion house, Paris fashion house, Maria Gallenga, CoCo Chanel, Madeleine Vionnet
review of sources
bulk of paper-each paragraph should be analysis-two citations per paragraph


Thesis: In the early 20th century, women of the feminist movement were gaining attention through protests against feminine oppression, but the most powerful protest was the visual demonstration of women independence through the revolutionary clothing designs of Maria Monaci Gallenga, Gabrielle Chanel, and Madeleine Vionnet.

1. By the early 20th century, women were beginning to experience civil equality, and because of the first World War, jobs were opening up for women, but it would take many alterations for women to change their status.
a. Clothing silhouettes changed with the events of the feminist movement.
b. women wanted to show independence in their dress rather than their loyalty to men with clothing that fitted a man’s liking.
c. As women saw amends to their standards in society, their clothing had fashionabley change to be fundemental.

2. The turn of the century into the early 1900’s produced a revolutionary changed in women’s clothes away from the whale-bone, provocative corset.
a. Maria Monaci Gallenga was an Italian feminist of the early 1900’s who began as a Pre-Raphaelite artist but became a women’s designer to emphasize the liberation of the female body from corsets.
b. French designer, Gabrielle Chanel felt is was necessary for women’s clothing to be functional as women were finding more work and opportunities in society.
c. Madeleine Vionnet then advanced upon these ideas by producing simplistic clothing flats that more complex in their draping and intricacies.

3. Maria Monaci Gallenga began her experimentation with feminine silhouettes when she joined the Pre-Raphelite artists in the late nineteenth century.
a. Pre-Raphelite art, photography, and poetry aimed to recreate the whimsical nature of art before Raphael; the artists were against materialism and painted the natural beauty of a woman.
b. The Pre-Raphelite Brotherhood was passionate for romanticism and the spirituality of medieval culture; therefore, the many women in their paintings portrayed this type of spiritual, quaint romanticism.
c. The produced paintings were mainly of women in Grecian-type dress that expressed elegance and fluidity.

4. Maria Monaci Gallenga took a drastic step forward for women by transferring the elegance and freedom in her Pre-Raphelite artwork into her new passion for clothing design.
a. Her first gown made in 1917 was inspired by the Renaissance dress and the new “renaissance woman.”
1). the gown had drapping shoulders and no corset.
2). It tightened at the waist but did not constrict or hug the torso.
b. She used her art backing to create new pattern designs that added to the renaissance elegance and liberty
c. Now women who wore Gallenga’s designs did not display the mechanical, complex concept of a corset but rather the mysticism of a flowing gown.

5. Gabriel Chanel grew up as an orphan and supported herself as a performer for men.
a. Gabrielle had numerous experiences with oppressive men that took advantage of her body and her lack of freedom.
b. Chanel never married and had many tragic affairs with men; she even falsified her life history when telling it to others because she was self conscious of her humble beginnings.
c. Gabrielle was a modernist and minimalist thinker because she did not agree with the requirements of a woman’s figure and loyalty to men.
1).Gabrielle was a skilled seimstress because of her experience in the childhood orphanage.
2). Chanel began designing clothing that was inspired by men’s wear and minimalist concepts because she wanted clothing to be functional.

6. Gabrielle who became famous as CoCo Chanel with her aspiration to prove the elegance of the working woman.
a. Chanel introduced women’s pants, little black dresses, and new pearl acessories.
b. The superficial complexities and decorations of 19th century dresses was nonexistent in Chanel’s clothing, because she wanted for her shoppers to protest their independence from men with these immense silhouette amends.
c. After WWI, Chanel embodied the new status of a women with her clothing.
1). Women gained independence from the war
2). Women needed to dress practical for their new job opportunities.
3). Women protested individuality and powerful elegance with these sleeker garments that were not designed to satisfy men.

7. Madeleine Vionnet was a french designer in the 1920’s who believed that “when a woman smiles, then her dress should smile too.”
a. Vionnet excluded any entities that took away from the natural curves of the female body in her designs.
b. Vionnet also designed with simplistic silhouettes that were intricate in their draping and cutting to maximize fluidity along the female figure.
c. Her clothes accentuated the movement of women and was inspired by Greek Art where clothing draped above the body and moved with its natural movement.
d. Becuase she did not believe in mechanically molding the shape of a women’s body, Vionnet became a world renowned designer and innovator for feminine dynamism.

8. Vionnet was know as the “Queen of the Bias Cut” for coming up with the revolutionary bias cutting technique in her dresses.
a. the Bias Cut is a technique that Vionnet founded where she cut fabric bias diagonally against its elastic grain.
b. With this, the fabric would cling to the woman and would move with her natural curves.
c. The revolutionary cut was body-slimming to a woman’s figure.

9. Because leading designers Gallenga, Chanel, and Vionnet changed the way women were viewed with their daily dress, the feminist movement was greatly catalyzed and aid with visual representation.
a. Like Grecian Godesses, woman could choose to wear whimsical dresses that expressed the virtue and capacity of the natural woman.
b. a woman protesting to work, vote, and join parliament would not be able to prove her capability while sporting a constricting corset that proved obedience to masculine standards.
c. Through Gallenga, women obtained the neo-classic romanticism in their silhouette; through Chanel, men’s clothing was amended to express superior feminine beauty; and through Vionnet, women could sport their sensuality without materialistic structuring.

10. Clothing did not grant women direct freedoms, but its constant projection of protest catalyzed the revolutionary changes in the European feminist movement.

Friday, February 18, 2011

Gabrielle Chanel

Here are my ideas:


In early 20th century Europe, fashion designers Maria Monaci Galleng, Gabrielle Chanel, and Madeleine Vionnet experimented with innovative clothing designs that changed the perception of a woman based on their everyday look.

In the early 20th century, the feminist movement was growing with protests against feminine oppression, but the most significant form of protest was the visual revolution of women's independence through innovative designers, Maria Monaci Galleng, Gabrielle Chanel, and Madeleine Vionnet.

In the early 20th century, women of the feminist movement were gaining attention through protests against feminine oppression, but the most powerful protest was the visual demonstration of women independence through the revolutionary clothing designs of Maria Monaci Galleng Gabrielle Chanel, and Madeleine Vionnet.

Kaplin

18/20-sorry i was not here to tell you what i got on the practice test

Thursday, February 17, 2011

Term Paper idea

think about-what is my question?-Why was Chanel averted to Women's clothing in the late 1800's
Analytical rather than descriptive
thesis question must answer question of "why?"-arguable
only put things in there that have to do with argument
lay out argument in thesis-sets the paper
good argument is elegant
24 primary sources-do not just have to be text
quotes do not count towards word count-
NO "YOU"
first time people are mentioned use first and last name; then later throughout the paper use only their last names
verbs should be in past tense-never change tense of verbs in passage that your quoting
active voice-NO PASSIVE VOICE
no anachronistic words-instead of using "modern" use contemporary because contemporary is not situated to a special time period like "modern" does
don't use counter to describe something that is not a country
underline book titles for handwriting but put them in italics for type face
works cited in apa format
FINISHING TOUCHES

  • always nubbier the pagers of your paper
  • always double space your papers, use a ten- or twelve- font, and stick to the standard set by your word-processing program
  • papers should be stapled. Papers clips, plastic clips and ornamental binders should not be used
  • use spell check
  • always do many drafts

Wednesday, February 16, 2011

Industrial Revolution

  • Movement of jobs from farms to cities
  • ancestors of industrial revolutions were the scientific thinkers that brought us through the enlightenment
  • practices: increase supply of food, supply of raw materials, 
  • changes in indsutrial organization
  • new technologies take new forms to increase production, efficiency, profits, and commerce
  • exponential growth in the technologies that will result in the exchanges
  • as technology changes, the ability to work on the field will move
  • one innovation in one realm causes a necessary change in another
  • agriculture occuppied a prominent position-not only important in sustainability of population, but it helped with textile industry
  • manufacturing of cloth was a trade between colony and homeland and production is apart of the system of industrialization
  • technology is a competition economically that will promote capitalism
  • advances: sturdier forms of farming created mechanically
  • little things like inventions will make a better plow, better harvester, more production, and greater profit
  • new inventions made for farms have to be made in factories
    • one compliments the other
  • England is preparing for the expansion of economy and the expansion of profit
  • used to be one person
  • movement out of farms into factories
  • rise in economy
  • prior to 1760-textiles were made in a cottage industry-in the home
    • tedious proces to get through the raw materials to make a finished product
  • machine gets same amount of work done in less time
  • Jenny-developed in 1760's-allowed one operator to spin multiple threads at the same time
    • one person can spin what 12 people used to
    • nearly 20,000 spinning Jenny's were used by end of 1700's
    • changed capacity of country to produce material
  • large textile industry that supports a bulk of the economy
  • before rights of workers are considered, workers are put into jobs for numerous hours in unsafe conditions
    • children can be made to work full shifts in factories
    • enormous rise in children in factories, unsafe factories, and owners of factories exploiting their workers
  • people could not sue or take control of their work because it does not exist
  • coal mining was sucidal-only people that worked were the people that had no the choice
  • even today, there are many dangers to coal miners
  • crawl down a tunnel with long stick with lighted candel on the end of it-trying to find out of there were any toxic gases in tunnel-if it flamed up then there was toxins there
  • more homes are heated with coal so more coal mining is needed
  • iron industry-big iron-smelted with coke-burned coal with much energy
    • coke is the byproduct and could be used to heat factories
  • railroads are starting-carrying materials from one place to another
    • faster trade
    • move around to different things that u used to be able to do
    • move stuff faster-get perishable goods somewhere else within the right amount of time
  • first use of canal systems came about 
  • # of folks were nvolved with canal industry
  • some halfway successful attempt at working the railcars
  • with George Stevenson- we get firs public railcars designed to move passengers around-1820's
  • world cities beginning to develop because transportation was easier
  • water used as steam for energy-steam engine
  • LIteralyl changes everything
  • four primary reasons-
    • decline in death rate
    • increase in birth rate
    • virtual elimination of plagues
    • lifting population dramatically
  • more than that-facotry jobs were tough but because they were in demand they would pay better wages than what was given on the farm
  • maybe make more money in the city thanback on farm
    • try having more children
    • people married younger
    • children bor earlier
    • old system of apprenticeship is not needed
    • no need for someone to learn how to work if the machine does it for them
  • marriage is socially mobilizing-move up in class through marriage
    • increases middle class
  • find increase in owners control of lives of workers
  • towns created because of factories-working towns
  • capital-sustain in business-earnings go out of factory and ou get mre done with less workers
  • making high profits-used as capital for new investments-one factory to start a second factory
    • created an entire corporation using factories
    • ability to grow capital to make investment that produces more profit
  • labor pool-people who are willing to work in facotories

Tuesday, February 15, 2011

Term Paper idea

CoCo Chanel's method of changing the concept of a women through her clothing.

Reflection

A reoccurring trend about the Frence successions is the methodology of handling dominance. When the Jacodbins began by forming the National Assembly, they were a third estate group that ran as the underdogs of society. When these Jacobins began to grab attention they began to turn cruel. Then it turned into the Terror and thousands of French people died. When Napoleon came along as a poor citizen, many underestimated him and even Josaphine hesitated to marry him; however, Napoleon declined when he indulged in his power. When emperors rise from a lower class and experience the privileges of riches, corruption of power will take place and the dominators will meet a bad end.

Monday, February 14, 2011

Napoleon and the Napoleonic Warsbv

  • by the end of the revolution we have a man coming up in ranks in france to become monarch
  • spent a revolution to lose monarch and then one comes to office directly after it
  • triumverate- Napoleon 
  • emergency commissions
  • Que De Taille-armed force takes over gov.-against leadership
  • first council was temporary but napoleon took over and made it sustainable
  • new constitution was approved and french people chose a new senate
  • its legislative body had low power in constitution which allows napoleon to consolidate his own power
  • napoleon offered peace to french people-by defeating austria
  • in 1802 napoleon brokers a peace deal with England-makes people happy
  • napoleon is looking like a benevolent dictator
  • helps french establish strong leader system and leadership
  • emigres-nobles against revolution-napoleon offers for them to come back
  • 1799-1804-rebuilding france with himself conspicuously as the great charge
  • starts a secret police force and summons the media
  • shuts down newspapers bigtime
    • shrink to a dozen in france that are state controlled
  • napoleon reaffirms peace with the vadican-catholocism becomes major religion of france but it is not the official state religion
    • vadican likes him again
  • he writes that the pope can come up with any papal bowls that he wants-church law coming directly from the pope
    • napoleon allows them to be issued but chooses whether they are applied to French
    • ORGANIC ARTICLES OF THE CONCORDAT-said that any church descisions were subject to any government approval
    • furthermore, napoleon gets nominate church positions and chooses that to apply to public, not Napoleon makes the church read state documents to church-goers
  • unions and guilds were not allowed to organize
  • lycee-school system was kept from revolution
  • metric system invented during french revolution
  • napoleonic code-overhall of french legal system-criminal code and legal code
  • citizens considered equal under law
  • freedom of decision was guaranteed
  • labor unions outlawed
  • women lost legal gains from revolution
  • men gained all control over property
  • and a woman had no rights to her earnings
  • status was defined by wealth
  • no fatalism-possible to move up from status
  • 1802-napoleon is consol for life-power to choose his own council and to amend constitution
  • 1804-he has himself cornated as emporer of france
  • napoleon-had desire to expand his empire
  • goes to war-napoleon desides to sell the louisiana puchase to Jefferson
    • doesn't want to deal with slave issues
  • starts a naval war against england 
    • 1805-english and french fight at trafalgar square
  • english pull up a tremendous victory and french are defeated
  • napoleon comes back with his land army
  • defeats their army and napoleon gains control of old principalities from holy roman empire
  • consolidates the empire into the confecnderation of the rhine
  • poland is set up as the grand duchy of warsaw
  • 1807-signs a peace treaty called the treaty of tilset-non aggression pact
  • can't beat england because he can't get to england without navy
  • takes a different approach
    • continental system-ifyou are an alllie of france you are forced to boycott france
  • spain-napoleon convinces monarch to leave the throne
  • puts his own brother joseph bonebarte to the throne of spain-lead to
  • massive guerilla war-with french army called the Peninsula War
  • napoleon had been married to Josaphine but divorces her in 1809 because she hasn't produced a male heir
  • marries daughter of the emperor of austria-Frances II
    • daughter: Marie Louis marry in 1810 at 19 years old
  • 1811-she produces a male heir
  • npoleon no has holdings in germany, poland, spain, 
  • outside of france he is resented-especially in germany
  • in 1809/1810-wave of nationalism comes over states in east germany and alexander the szar of russia backs out of continental system-allies with britain
  • napoleon is incensed by it and sends enormous invasion army to attack russia-700,000 troops
    • sounds like a large force but russia is huge 
    • use Scorched Earth POlicy-burn down town and fields to get the french to back up and now the french supply lines are so long that you can attack from behind and starve them
    • crops are burned down
    • never go to war with russia
    • its cold, miserable, 
  • large battle in moscow and Napoleon sort of wins but a blizzard comes
  • russians feel they have upper half and sign deal with prussians and defeat Napoleon
    • prussian armt supported by the british
    • battle of liepzig
  • in march of 1814-russia, prusia, austria, and england sign together as the quadruple alliance
  • abdicates the throne and attempts sucide
  • people of france are fed up with him and exile him to the island of Elba
  • napoleon is exiled and they bring in louis 18th who is brother of Louis XVI
  • constitutional monarch
  • meet with Talleyrand-french minister helps to work out the situation
  • however, napoleon escapes from Elba and in 1815-raises new army of his own
  • the 100Days battles through Europe
  • in Belgiun Napoleon is captured and put in British company to die in the year 1821
  • effects of napolian-signifianct effect on alliance in europe
    • demonstrates the dangers of revolution-what you get may not be what you wanted

Sunday, February 13, 2011

French Revo/ Egypt Rev.

Essentials:


1. Compare / Contrast Louis XVI and Mubarak.
2. In each case, WHY were the people protesting? (Cite primary sources).
3. What role did women play?
4. What concerns are their about the current situation in Egypt? How might they relate to the days following the fall of Louis XVI?
5. How did/are people express(ing) their views?
6. Are the current protests violent?
7. What do people on the ground in Cairo think is going to happen now? (Directly contact reporters and bloggers in Egypt via Twitter during this class period).
8. Based on your study of the French Revolution and your current observations of the situation in Egypt, what do you think are possible outcomes? How are the possible outcomes in Egypt alike or different with outcomes in France -- both in the short and long term.


Sources:


Sources on French Revolution


http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook13.html




Sources on Egypt


Al Jazeera
http://english.aljazeera.net/
http://blogs.aljazeera.net/middle-east/2011/02/10/live-blog-feb-11-egypt-protests
Al Jazeera Reporters' Twitter feeds: http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2011/01/201112523026521335.html


New York Times
http://www.nytimes.com/
http://thelede.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/02/11/latest-updates-on-day-18-of-egypt-protests/?hp
Mubarak Bio: http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/people/m/hosni_mubarak/index.html?inline=nyt-per


NPR
http://www.npr.org/?refresh=true
http://www.npr.org/blogs/thetwo-way/2011/02/11/133675132/live-blog-latest-on-events-in-egypt


CNN
http://www.cnn.com/?refresh=1


NBC
http://www.msnbc.msn.com/
http://worldblog.msnbc.msn.com/egypt


Twitter Search
http://search.twitter.com/search?had_popular=true&q=%23Egypt&result_type=recent

Louis XVI-1744-1788


  • Come to office with a huge weight on his shoulders because France was deeply in debt
  • aimed for love by the people and reinstated parliament
  • intellectually acute but indecisive
  • married to Marie Antionette of Austria
  • determined to listen to public opinion
  • Ordered advisor Jean-Frederick Phelypeaux to listen to public opinion
  • hired many different officials who wrongly levied taxes and brought france into panic and depression-Turgot, Maleherbes, Jauques Necker, Charles Alexandre de Calonne, Assembly of Notables,--all failed and Louis lost his absolute ruling
  • recalled Estates General in 1788 for first time since Louis XIII 
  • estates general split into First (Clergy), Second (Nobles), and Third (the rest) estates
  • Estates General took over and refused to take their hat off for Louis so he did for them
  • lost all supporters in french revolution and was executed
  • Good hearted, No self esteem, Shy, Clumsy, A loner, Indecisive, Weak, Misunderstood.


  • Mubarak-1981-2010
  • after assassination for president Sadat
  • Egypt was asked to return to the Arab League with Mubarak after suspension from Sadat
  • In the Gulf war of 1991 and aid in getting iraqies out of Kuwait
  • after war egypt was in about 14 billion dollars of debt (Louis put France into depression)
  •  assassination attempts on Mubarak: 6 (Louis was assassinated)
  • by 1999, put 20,000 people in detention for creating revolutionary organizations (Estates General turning against him)
  • 2004- appointed prime ministers to create a board of optimism 
  • sold shares of most public businesses and the economy in capital of egypt crashed (Louis bought church property with paper money and sold them, skyrocketing inflation.)
  • by emergency law, Mubarak allows for police to violate citizens' property and make unconditioned arrests
  • dictator (Louis was an absolutist)
  • Mubarak did not give permission for the septemeber presidential succession and planned to rewrite a constitution
  • revolution broke out in Cairo and in two weeks Mubarak stepped down (French Revolution)
  • Mubarak and his family left Egypt (Versaille)
Why are People Protesting?
French Revolution- Third estate wanted their rights and the second estate had taken over the king. Third estate became the national assembly and started an uprising of revolution that killed thousands daily. After third estate got locked by king and second estate out of its meeting room, the split began. They wrote a new constitution and began the Oath of the Tennis Court. The radical reformers became overly dominant and strict that they began killing every nonconformer. This was known as the Terror and was run by Robespierre. People were in panic and furry that France was in such debt and the poorest estate had to pay for it. 
http://www.thecaveonline.com/APEH/frrevdocuments.html#anchorterror

People in Egypt:
Fighting to get the corrupted ruler out of Egypt. He was a dictator that violated the citizens and dictated them. Egyptions did not want their constitution to be rewritten and they also did not want to be oppressed by a ruler any longer. Mubarak was believed to be a selfish ruler. In hopes of getting the president to step down for the next presidential vote, egyptions engaged in a massive revolution that was efficient within 2 weeks. Egypt wanted peace.
http://twitter.com/#!/search/%23egypt

Women
  • Women in the French revolution marched at the March of Versaille asking the the royal family would return to paris
  • Olympe de Gouges wrote Rights of Women as a women's right activist but was executed with Marie Antoinette and Lavoisier as an enemy of the Jacobins. 
  • In Egypt its mostly men, but women are tagging along in supporting the men, running with the riots, helping the injured, and even young girls are protesting with propaganda on the streets
  • no sexual harassment reported since the start of the revolution
  • men saying sorry when they bump into women
  • women protesting were advised to wear two layers of clothes because they wanted to be bold and courageous; the police are notorious for groping and harassing women in Egypt
  • not more gender suppression during revolution
expression of views: in French Revolution it was riots, violence, and protests on the street along with the spreading of pamphlets throughout the country. In Egypt its the same riots, violence, and protesting in the masses; however, the entire revolution was enhanced and supported by the communication through twitter.

Are they violent?
amount of deaths
French Revolution-Terror: 14,000 people killed through guillotine, drowning, shootings
Egypt Revolution-included civil disobedience, civil resistance, demonstrations, riots, strike accounts. Deaths: at least 302; Injuries: up to 3,000 people; arrests: 1,000 people

How have people responded on twitter to my questions?
I asked one man if he had witnessed any deaths in the streets or the marching of the bloody flag and he answered "No :);" 
Then I asked TIMES for their most poignant photo from the revolution he gave me this: called Tears of Joy http://www.time.com/time/photogallery/0,29307,2044357_2235893,00.html


Lastly, I asked another man about what the streets looked like and he answered
"Egyptians in every street are celebrating & shouting in proud to be egyptians....We celebrate power and dignity."


France dealt with many economic problems after the french revolution, because each event of the war worsened their debt. Egypt is in chaos and has dug a large situation for themselves. If the succeeding president is not fully prepared to step up to his position than Egypt cannot be strengthened through this revelry. In the short term, I believe that Egypt is in for a long period of transition out of a low economic, political, and social time and into a liberal lifestyle. Even though the president has stepped down, the loss of Mubarak is only a small part of the entire revolution. In the long term, Egypt will stabilize with a new ruler, but hopefully things in the middle east will begin to stabilize altogether with the influence of war and poverty upon them.