Tuesday, January 25, 2011

Peter and Catherine Free Response

Analyze the methods and degrees of success of Russian political and social reform
from the period of Peter the Great (1689–1725) through Catherine the Great
(1762–1796).

outline
reform-straighten out
peter-westernized Europe with his window to the west.
succeeded Sophia and Ivan the Terrible who
originallly, Peter was given power at age ten and had to be brought to the city to rule, but then Ivan struck back by throwing memebers of Peter’s family off of the Grand Red star in Faceted palace onto raised Pikes of the Guard.
Peter and Ivan ruled together, then Ivan’s sister Sophia came into rule.
Peter went to Europe and came back to take personal rule to stop the rebellions taking place from Sophia.
peter’s changes-band classic clothing and beards, established technical schools, replaced the church hierarchy, changed the alphabet, changed the calendar, changed his name to emporer, and had many other reforms
westernization-St. Petersburg
torture-his son
informality

catherine-followed Peter’s ruling and became more successful than her husband
encouraged Peter’s reforms and followed the central rule over the provinces
produced many diplomacies
expanded european affairs
patron of the arts
took back may reforms with her consrevativeness towards the french revolution
destressed the state of the peasantry

topic
methods
toturous peter
conservative Catherine
conclusion


Peter the Great (1689-1725) was the Russian Tzar to reshape Russia into a dominating western power, while Catherine the Great was the next Tzar to expand upon the success of Russia between 1762-1796. Peter came to reign after Ivan the terrible and Sophia of Russia; both of the rulers were unfavored by the Russian population and instigated many rebellions. Peter spent time in Europe and came back to implement hundreds of brash reforms on Russia to send it through its fastest transformation. Then after Peter died, Catherine the Great overpowered her foolish husband, Peter III, and came to power in hopes of encouraging more reforms and greater expansion. Catherine continued this liberal rule until she turned conservative during the French Revolution. Peter the Great and Catherine the Great were successfully radical in their enthusiasm for western reform in Russia, but Peter’s torturous manner and Catherine’s increasing conservativeness contributed to their decline in turning away many supporters and increased the distressed state of the peasantry in Russia
After spending a two years eagerly traveling through Europe, Peter gained understanding for industrial techniques and social structures to implement on Russia during his rule. Peter began his rule by first banning men from being able to dress in classic attire, then Peter cut off the beards of the nobles himself, seeing that beards were outdated in Europe. Peter also invested in the expensive building of St. Petersburg as the “Window to the West” that opened Russia to commerce with European nations. Upon other series of reforms, Peter’s new methods of running a nation hit Russia hard but strengthened it to become one of the leading western powers in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. When Catherine the Great came to power after the Emporer Peter the Great died, Catherine was concentrated on expanding upon Peter’s reforms and increasing the western culture of Russia. Catherine did this  a bit differently; she patronized the arts by commisioning many buildings, libraries, and artsits. Catherine also contacted French writers such as Voltaire and built the Hermitage Museum. In politics, Catherin was a skilled diplomat and kept central rule over the Russian provinces. Both Peter and Catherine expanded Russia past the successes of any former Tzars.
Peter’s radical, brash, and informal manner was not liked by all, despite his transformation on Russia. Peter was openly torturous and started his personal rule with the mass execution of Russian rebels and the hanging of them outside of Sophia’s window. Peter took many executions into his own hands during his rule and sometimes ordered nobles to watch in fear of what might happen to them. Many of the Russian nobles were also for the status quo and formality of running the country; these such nobles were against Peter for his aversion from any sort of state formality. Peter’s significant, unattractive credential was his opposition to his own son, Alexei. Alexis was for the status quo of running a nation, and Peter was deathly torturous to Alexei. After fleeting to Vienna away from his father and rising royalty, Alexei was suspected to be getting foreign backing. Peter had his own son arrested and tried for treason. Alexei was given to be executed but died from Peter’s torture wounds before undertaking the execution. Peter was informal, sloppy, and appeared common-like, but his personal indulgence in the power be overly radical and torturous lead to Peter’s downfall in popularity.
Catherine the Great was brash and expansive in her peak because of the model reign that Peter had laid down for her; however, Catherine declined as well with the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789. In this decline, Catherine became sensitive towards her power and greatly conservative. This resulted in Catherine taking back many of her reforms in hopes of turning Russia back to being equally conservative. Catherine lost popularity in this and became increasingly vile towards her criticisms. Until her death, Catherine continued to counter reform and like Peter the Great, Catherine suppressed the peasantry the most in midst of her decisions. Unlike Peter, Catherine was against capital punishment, but she lost support with her reversion to conservativeness and hostility towards her royals decisions.
The methods used to modernize Russia were ingenious of Peter the Great and Catherine the Great in the state of Russia during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; however, their multitudes of success were neutralized by a harsh decline that was brought about personally in the time of their reigns. For how common and low key Peter wanted to appear, his acceptance of brash torture was hurtful to his supporters, his non-supporters, and most significantly his family. Catherine accentuated Russia with greater expansion and Western reformation methods, but strict, abrupt reversal of these gains turned many Russian supporters against Catherine’s new ruling. With all of the methods that bring about a ruler’s climax, there are responding methods that bring upon the decline, and Peter the Great and Catherine personally found their declines in their own moral nature.

Monday, January 24, 2011

peter the great

Peter the Great
  • Russain Empire- continued after the four empires ended in WWI
  • rise and fall of empires is a theme of this course
    • Peter Great was given for expanding Russia
    • what Peter the Great did-pushed back the neighbors that had blocked the expansion of Moscow-Sweden
    • poltava, Poland, Turks, and Swedes are defeated for expansion
  • dreamed of capturing constantinople that would give him control of the straights to black sea
    • peter the great was te first of russian tzars that dreamed of this-
    • azov-access of black sea-lose and are forced to surrender after an unsuccessful
  • despite this dramatic expansion of russain empire, does not get this outlet to the black sea
  • russia’s participation in european affairs had been minimal-
    • Louis XIV sent a letter to russain Tzar who had been dead for 12 years because russia was so out of communication
  • after russain victories began, europeans began to recognize Peter and began to have a fear of him and Sweden too with Gustovos Adolphus
  • There is no other European states expanding their empire overseas that adds as much land to its empire from the 1630-1740’s as Russia
    • about 2 million square miles
  • first child of father’s second wife
    • bujair threw over nobles
  • died in 1725-no strict rules for succession of tzar
    • family battle royale
  • no foreign minister-
  • council of the nobles-met in the throne of nobles-known as Duma
  • his absolutism is because of his personality
    • opening up of russia to Euro ideas
    • he does this himself
    • as a boy he was very smart and into science
    • traveled often to Europe
  • took archaic structure and transforms it into an absolute monarchy
    • common to hapsburg, france, Sweden
  • wants to open up russia to commerce-wanted wealth for improvement of russain life
    • made russia a huge military power
  • injects european culture
  • the tension in russia between
  • peter was at least 6 foot 7-guards of Frederick the Great were Giants because they were six feet tall
    • most people were 5 foot 4
    • napoleon was the average height of most people in france
  • he had extremely small hands and feet and stumbles sometimes when he walked
    • odd facial ticks that he could not help-terrets
  • torturous-sometimes kept people alive to suffer longer-had people come and watch so that people could be warned not to act up
    • executed people himself
  • incidents where his merciful side came through as well-when it came to treason he was less likely to be nice
    • ex. his son that he tortured
  • his second wife was a latvian peasant maid- the nobles thought it was horrific
    • he was capable of playing the role of a tzar but there are more images of him in battered clothing to recognize his struggles
  • like the company of ordinary people-identified himself with the cmmon people
    • liked to walk, avoided carraiges
    • commoners were sometimes better dressed than he was
  • ate standing up and jumped from table to table to socialize
  • liked living in a basic peasant house found in the outskirts of Moscows
  • drunken assembly-mock parliament
    • getting waisted then making mockery decisions
    • saying that being a Tzar is more than just playing the role
  • he had to manifest strength, firmness, and bravery
    • got to work earliest
  • loved maps and geography-self taught
  • made spelling mistakes-had bad handwriting
  • built a private library with ordinary books and teaching books
  • sang religious music and played the drums
  • peter wanted a navy-needed a port
    • he first built a navy on rivers using dutch shipmasters from amsterdams
    • learned dutch in 1696 he went to western europe incognito to learn military skills
  • interesedt in baroque
  • makes nobles junior partners in absolutism
  • asked men and women to dress like european and to adopt nonrussian customs for russia
    • tremendous tensions with the church eventhough he is deeply religious
  • some put on western syled wigs
  • woman began to wear heals
  • his son was more under influence of tradition
    • plots agaisnt his father
    • father totures him
    • son dies of a cold after being put in a cell
    • weakened
  • what lasted was the europeanization of western culture
  • has books translated from west into russian
  • russain students sent anbraod to study at universities
  • peter was a son of european rationalism-rationality rather than traditionalism
  • not agaisnt the church but thought people were waisting their time being monks
    • did not serve state or the dynasty


  • in siberia, this empire amounted to little more than a series of trrading posts. Peter the great creates this create empire that will have great influence after a while
  • will have an enormous influence on asian powers as well
  • open up russia to comemrce knowing that trade means wealth
  • makes russia a military power in 17th and early 18th century
  • injects euro culture into russia
  • what is russian that should stay nonsecular and what is russian that should be modified?
  • peter is at least 6’7’’--extremely small hands and small feet
  • very torturous
  • enormous ambivolous to his power-married a lativian commoner
  • boyars-horrified
  • sad childhood
  • loved sleeping on ships-rocking allowed him to sleep
  • he ate peasant food
  • had a natural manner-could be considered inappropriate
  • liked masquerades
  • always took fake names as commoners so that he would look like a peasant
  • very interested in the sciences

Friday, January 21, 2011

MIDTERM

Free response-2.
Elizabeth-politique-had a religion between Catholicism and Anglicanism and made every attend masses, changed sides to be on the protestants side of Dutch rebellion, Spanish armada victory because of better ships, sea dawgs
Catherine de’medici of France-Christian IX –persecuted Huguenots –St. Bartholomew’s day massacre 1588
Elizabeth I of England and Catherine De Medici of France were two woman rulers who were powerful over their subjects and were associated with two of the greatest powers of Europe in the 16th century. Elizabeth was a protestant who chose a religion between Catholicism and Anglicanism in England and enforced the attendance of Englishmen to church gatherings. Catherin De Medici was a devout Catholic of the Medici family who persecuted Huguenots in the late 1500’s. Both of these women had power over their countries, Catherine dictated the motives of Christian IV in France, especially in 1588, and Elizabeth encouraged her military to go forth in many victorious battles. Both Elizabeth and Catherine were strict in their ways of religion and both understood how to maintain their powers despite femininity, but the greatest difference between the two that made Elizabeth a great power was that Elizabeth was a politique who chose what was best for her country.
England in the sixteen hundreds was an Anglican force that was not fully purified by puritans because Elizabeth wanted a mix of religion in the Church of England. Catherine from France kept the Catholic reign going as mentor to Christian IV. Elizabeth kept strict hold on her religion; however, she was not a persecutor within her own state because she was an enforcer of nationalism. Catherine was one to persecute especially in 1588 with the St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre. Catherine enforced Christian IV to go to Paris and murder thousands of Huguenots there to celebrate Henry Navarre’s wedding. This only began the French Civil Wars in France, while England was carrying on with its international affairs.
In the French civil wars, or the Wars of the Three Henry’s, France ended with a murdered Henry Guise, and the Edict of Nantes under Henry IV. This accepted Huguenots with Henry’s conversion to Catholicism. Like Elizabeth, this is another example of a politique who puts his or her country first. Catherine did not do so with her Massacre that began turmoil within the Nation of France, and Catherine lost her ruling shortly after this occurrence. Elizabeth, however, sustained her rule with the encouragement to her military and the unifying of religion. With the Spanish Armada, Spain could not stand up against the naval quantities of England who was prepared and encouraged by Elizabeth against Phillip II. Winning this destroyed Spain and benefited to nationalize England through Elizabeth.
Catherine De Medici is a radical Ruler who used her power to disorganize the nationalism in France. It was not until Louis XIV (1643-1715), that France was fully unified through absolutism.  Elizabeth gained her ability to nationalize her country through her ideas on religion and nationalism. With this foundation, Elizabeth could go on the deal with the Dutch Revolts as she took the Calvinist side to go against the Spanish. Elizabeth was not Calvinist but agreed with the liberation of the Netherlands in relation to the strict catholic ruling of the Hapsburg. Catherine may have been a powerful feminine ruler over her catholic nobility, but Elizabeth was a feminine ruler over both the parliament and her lower subjects.
Both Elizabeth and Catherine were noted leaders for their choices made on religion, but the choices made by Elizabeth to better unify her country were better suited for empowering a state in comparison for the ideals of Catherine de Medici. As a result of the reformation, Protestantism was fusing into Europe relatively powerfully. While Elizabeth understood that she would not be able to have a mono-religious nation, she intelligently decided to fuse Catholicism and Anglicanism together to form the Church of England for that time period. The persecution of such a large quantity of Huguenots made Catherine out to be powerful and intelligent in her plots, but in the greater scheme of things, national unification through one religion in that time period was not beneficiary for the strength of a state. Elizabeth I and Catherine de Medici was powerful woman that broke out of the masculine polarity of the time; however, Elizabeth was a more notable character for her unification through the greater good of her nation.

4. Protestantism-martin Luther 1517, Jon Wycliffe, john Hus-no worldliness
England-church of England becomes protestant,
France
Hapsburg-stays
Holy roman empire-greatly split with different choices over
Protestantism in the 1500’s was an idea that had not yet been verbalized until Martin Luther’s 95 Thesis in 1517, but the religious the significance of Protestantism became blown off of its religious course because of the great social and political consequences.
Protestantism’s ideals of salvation on faith alone were founded by John Wycliffe in the 1400’s, but it was not until Martin Luther came along that the sects of Protestantism began to spread across Europe. Protestantism altered Catholicism by asking that salvation is found on faith alone, that the bible is the only source of teaching about religion, the idea of consubstantiation, and that the clergy is allowed to Mary. Not far from Catholicism, Protestantism served more as a political device in the 1500’s with many following social consequences. Luther’s intentions when her nailed the 95 Thesis to the Catholic Church in Wittenberg, Germany were to bash the Catholic Clergy for their mishaps on religion; however, the creation of Protestantism from this, had greater political and social abrasions than the true significance of the religion itself.   
The Catholic Church in the 1500’s was run by clergy that were wealthy and without authority. Entities such as nepotism, pluralism, simony, and absenteeism were becoming prominent in the church as they corrupted its religious nature. The lack of celibacy was not changed by the reformation, but Luther’s ideas against church hierarchy and the reversion back to following the bible socially interrupted the clergy. With the many conversions to Protestantism, priests had to crack down to conforming to catholic ideals to keep up the populations of the church. This is a prime example the social divisions that Protestantism went against and that divided the European populations against and for the catholic hierarchy.
Martin Luther served great social and even political consequences as a result of his religious ideals. In 1520, he was excommunicated as a monk from the Catholic Church in Germany, and the Union of Trent even tried to reconcile with Luther. Luther, however, was too indulged in his ideas to apologize pope for his reformation. Now that Calvinism, puritanism, Anglicanism, Anabaptism, Presbyterianism, and many other sects were emerging from the reformation, the Catholic Councils could not keep a hold of the Catholic Unity; however, Luther was one of the single men who could be pinpointed. Martin Luther was on the verge of being executed for the havoc he had begun, but he was lucky enough to be smuggled to a king’s castle to get away from the strife. Even though Luther brought about his religion of Protestantism to voice his morals and church disposition, Luther was socially bashed for starting a continental reformation and relatively quickly, Luther was condemned and almost executed.
Religion that was unified to Catholicism in the middle ages did not have a much of a political standpoint to be used as a tool to gain power. With the introduction of Protestantism, however, countries such as England with Henry VIII and The Holy Roman Empire could gain political power and ruling with the conversion of religions. Henry VIII attained great political problems with his beginning of the Church of England in the early 1500’s. The Church of England was made Protestant not because Henry had any opposition to Catholicism but rather a political tool, to unify his nobility. It was also a social tool to Mary Anne Boleyn and to annul his marriage to Catherin. With the Holy Roman Empire that was made of 300 principalities, Princes began to choose their religion their province without regard to the lack of unification that was coming out of it. This caused political issues until 1555 with the Peace of Augsburg which did not come to unify the Holy Roman Empire. Succeeding this came the 30 Years War that also left the Holy Roman Empire greatly disorganized. All of these occurrences that weakened the Holy Roman Empire are linked back to the Protestant reformation with Martin Luther in the early 1500’s.
Luther was a catholic monk himself with new ideas that reshaped what he believed to be a truer religion; however, the religious significance of Protestantism was blown off its religious course because of the great social and political consequences it had. Martin Luther experienced these issues himself in that he was almost persecuted for his ideas. The Catholic Clergy experienced much interruption to its hierarchy as many Europeans converted to protestant sects. Lastly, nations across Europe began to use Protestantism as a political tool to gain superiority and variance from other powerful nations. For those who remained Catholic, much warfare was to come after the 16th century against opposing protestant nations. Martin Luther was dignified and courageous in his nailing of the 95 Thesis on the day after All Saints Day in 1517 and in his excommunication from being a Catholic monk in 1520, but his political and social ignorance was brought out in the immense social and political changes that came out of his instant popularity.




Pilgrimage of grace- protesting against Henry’s Act of Supremacy

Doc. 1-marching on the eastern coast of British Isles
Doc. 1- honor for men to enter only because of their devotion to Catholic Church
                Because of love of god
                Because of holy catholic church militant
                Purify nobles
                Expel all evil councilors
Doc. 2- must be ready to be robbed and tortured by scots and other defenders
Doc. 3-wounds and importance of Christ flag-bleeding heart legs and hand, chalice plow and cattle horn
Doc. 4-monks claim that the church is becoming lame
Doc. 5-petition against Luther, Wycliffe, Hus, etc. has them destroyed
Doc. 6-parliament has no authority or virtue
Doc. 7-wiser rule should govern all-catholic
Doc. 8-upset that rebellion is taking place because it is hurting the cath. Population
Doc.9- henry VIII claiming that the rebellion has done nothing to help the Catholics
Doc. 10-almost all who have write letters to VIII have been convicted
Doc. 11-commonwealth left unattended

The Pilgrimage of Grace began in 1536 by groups of Catholics in England who believed that the Act of Supremacy by Henry VIII was a corruption to England with its new taxes, laws, and expansion of royal power. These riots and rebellions went on for a full year, and during which, Henry VIII convicted 65% of the Catholics who wrote to him in the midst of the chaos (doc. 10). Rebellions were not suppressed; however, because Catholics were adamant in purifying nobles, expelling “evil” councilors, spreading their love for god, and showing honor the Catholic Church (doc. 1). One monk who was imprisoned for the pilgrimage of Grace even explained that the rebellions were only hurting the Catholic population rather than expounding upon them (doc. 8).  With the Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII ordered to purify the church with Anglicanism mainly to merry Anne Boleyn, and with the Counter Reformation in England came events such as the Pilgrimage of Grace that lasted short in its time and was pointless in its effects of halting the outward expression new Protestant religions.
The Pilgrimage of Grace lasted from 1536-1537 with little effect on the ruling of Henry VIII. Henry was a new monarch that came about with great power above his classes, but many Catholics still petitioned towards him. Such even asked that the “heresies of Luther, Wycliffe, and Tyndale be destroyed,” and that the Pope of Rome should be the greatest power” (Doc.5) Whether these petitioning Catholics were sacrificing themselves with devotion or not, contradicting the king by calling his allies such as Luther, Wycliffe, and other protestants heretics, is asking for encouragement from the king. The Counter Reformation in this case of verbalizing views to the king, is a counter to the counter formers who think they are doing justice.
Catholics wanted to prove their loyalty to god in the Pilgrimage so that Catholicism was not forgotten in the midst of the reformation. The flag of the Catholics who marched had Jesus’ extremities and bleeding heart on it, the chalice, a plow, and a cow horn (Doc. 3). This was to show that Eucharist was the most significant part of religion and should not be changed to consubstantiation in protestant sects. Also, the cow horn and plow refer to the countryside people who were not benefitted by the reformation; however; the inclusion of the Pilgrimage only brought the poor peasants to greater lows because they were not able to be aided by the king and parliament (Doc. 11). While the common wealth was left unattended, and catholic population was only decreases in in the marching areas along the British Isles (doc. 8). Catholics felt they were illustrating and projecting the wounds of Christ with meaningful marches, but the wounds of Christ were still viewed by Protestants anyways and there came greater wounds on the Catholics population as a result.
Henry VIII was not in any way intimidated by these weak counter reformers. In a pardon written by him to other marchers in December 1536, he claimed “you have given comfort to your enemies…high displeasures to God who commands you to obey your sovereign in all things” (doc. 9). Catholics were immensely dense in choosing to go against the king that ultimately went against their god. It is a sin to be harsh to others and to use such flags and petitions as a way to settle religion. The entity of Christ is to treat everyman as a friend. The Catholics even noted that they would be persecuted and not accepted but they vowed to go on anyways (Doc. 2). If Catholics had taken more of the Leveler’s side of things, then they would not have believed in persecuting other; nevertheless, even Catholicism would not grant the allowance of such protesting as the Pilgrimage of Grace.
Catholics protested because they believed that the wiser rule should govern all (Doc. 7). This was a brash intimation that Catholics were more intelligent and moral than Anglicans. Catholics, however, were not intelligent at all to commit protestation that would go forth to hurt their population. Their choice of counter reforming only left them weaker and Protestantism stronger. Even if Catholics believe that parliament has no virtue to hold authority, stepping out of the morals of their religion to march against another was meaningless for Protestants when the point of the sacrifices and marches was to change the minds of English Monarchies.

Friday, January 14, 2011

Review DBQ

The scientific revolution took place between 1500-1700 because new ideas were beginning to sprout out of the suppressing dirt of European nations such as the Netherlands, Italy, Germany, and France. These ideas often were explained to bring about the presence of God in the church, but the ideas also went against the church for being contradictory to the bible (Doc. 2). Scientists were often men that were inspired in a society by the scientists that had come before them, and scientists were also compelled by the political struggles that were stalled between European nations. Even though the minds of scientists were taught by the Church, scientists were economically supported by a society, and their work may have been in response to political occurrences; these forces should have been equally condemned for also being factors that condemned scientists for coming up with ideas that were far too complex and intelligent for populations in the nations of Europe to understand.
John Calvin claimed that the art of science “unfolds the admirable wisdom of God” (Doc. 8). Science that proves new stars new planets such as the work of Haley and Galileo was seen to shape the great power of God; however, if the ideas that go against any rule of the bible will be condemned even if the experiments were proven repeatedly (Doc. 5). As a prime example, Capirnucus idealized the model of a heliocentric solar system that is proven true today. Galileo was the scientist that came to fully prove Heliocentricism to the church, but the church condemned Galileo and the idea. Heliocentricism is equally of value as the mountains on the moon, but because geogentricism is taught by the Bible, the ideas of these advanced minds were not praised but rather shot down and misrepresented. Copernicus dedicated his work to the church and asked that the value of his mind and capacity be represented by the Catholic church (Doc 1). Later, it would be found that these true ideas would be devalued. The Church was a guiding power in the scientific revolution; however, it is not acceptable for it to be inflexible in its acceptance of newly proven ideas.
The societies within European nations in the 1500’s were dominated by educated men, the church, and monarchs. Therefore, women’s ideas had little chance of being recognized. Philosopher Margaret Cavenish wrote that “For though the Muses and the Graces and the Sciences were all of female gender, yet they were more esteemed in former ages than they are now.” Societies in Greece once praised woman’s ideas because of their ideologies’ effects on society. In the middle ages and the in the Scientific Revolution even, women’s ideas could not have a chance with men’s because it was not taught or accepted in society that woman could be educated. Human life is given to approach new ideas and scientific knowledge (Doc. 4). Many scientists and philosophers were catalyzing such occurrences in the scientific revolution. Philosphers such as Francis Bacon were teaching that humans know nothing and that everything must be proven through experiment; this gives way to the idea that society is not as smart and advanced as it is going to be. Truth is found with the understanding from man to man; therefore, society should have had great devotion towards philosophers and scientists that were coming up with these more true and modernized ideas.
With the upcoming monarchs, long-going wars, and political movements in the 1500-1700’s, science and philosophy were wanted to aid the superiority of a nation. Navigation was helped by Galileo, Kepler, and Brahe with their observations of the stars and space, for example. All scientific ideas could be helpful in advancing a political stature; however, as Thomas Hobbes onces explained, the ideas of geometry are are not considered powerful against the sword, because politicians could care less about the angles of a angles of a triangle without understanding its importance (Doc. 7). New ideas of thinking catalyzed movement of trade, the advancements of artiliary, and the greatness of the King. When Louix XIV came to French Royal Acedamy, he stuck out as a monarch compared to a  
Everything about science and thinking as also about a society’s power, but these new ideas could not be fully recognized if the powers of a church, a human, and a political stander condemned them first.

Tuesday, January 11, 2011

thesis statements

1. European states could use sciences to strengthen such things as the power of their military and the activity of their trade ships, but the most important enhancement to European states was the patronization of artists and architects to depict the quality of absolute power superiority towards all other monarchies in their lavish works.

2. protestant views- speak of Church of England, lutheranism, and antibaptist

Analyze various ways in which the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) represented a turning point in European history.

The Thirty Years War was a religious conflict in modern day Germany between the Catholic League and Protestant Union. The war lasted from 1618-1648 and concluded with a shift of dominant European power to France. In the midst of the Reformation, this war illustrated the forces that were aggressive towards the changing religious statuses of powerful European families. There were four phases of the Thirty Years war that were executed to resolve political unrest between the Bourbon and Hapsburg families, but the conclusion with the Peace of Westphalia demarcated the first secure states and allowed for Calvinism to be accepted as a state's chosen religion to prove the increase in statehood after the war. Before the Thirty Year War, there were several major monarchies in Europe, only one religion, and some growing secularism; however, the war was destructive but necessary because it experimented with ruling through religion and concluded that states cannot eternally stay organized through religious dictation.
The Thirty Years War fought in four phases; the Bohemian Phase (1618-1624), the Danish Phase (1625-1629), the Swedish Phase (1630-1635), and the French Phase (1635-1648). In the first two phases, the Catholic League was winning; however, in the third phase the protestants tied up and in the last phase, there was no winner. The war ended with a peace treaty that predominantly demarcated the first idea of a secure state. This was necessary because with different monarchies ruling different states, it becomes harder for states to stay united inrelation to the distance from their central authority. For example, the Hapsburg's from Spain ruled Austria, but the harsh ruling over the distance brought along the Dutch Revolt and the split of the Netherlands. This war was a beginning proof that it was vital for nations and states to become better demarcated.
Also concluded from the war was that Calvinism was accepted as a choice of religion for the Holy Roman Empire. Before the war, Europe was undergoing its reformation and counter reformation because new religious ideas were becoming publicized by the public towards the Catholic Church. Protestantism was a growing force that helped to pull the war together because Europe could not be united by one religion over many monarchies forever. The acceptance of Calivinism proved that Europe was becoming religiously independent and politically modernized without being not fixed on religion as a political standpoint. Even though the ending of the war was drastic and devastating, these provisions were intimations for the advancement of Europe.
The Holy Roman Empire was made up of 300 polarized and unevenly powered principalities with Austria and Prussia being the most powerful. With the Peace of Augsburg, princes in the empire could choose between Catholicism and Protestantism for the principality; this gave way to turmoil because rules then had to be suppressed on the percentage of nonconformists. The war was fought in Germany and was the most devastating event that took place there in the time. By the end, the Holy Roman Empire was still unorganized because of the lack of nationalism in the state. The provisions of the war did not seem to help the empire initially, but the depiction of a secure state illustrated the optimum political configuration for a unified state that Germany needed to become.
The Thrity Years war was immense and tragic, but really, it was a good way to prove that religion should not be for political benefit but rather for shaping and guidance of European lifestyle. The conclusions of the Thirty Years War were helpful for France as the dominant power and Calvinist princes in the Holy Roman Empire, but it was necessary especially for the demarcation of a state and the choice of diplomacies for authority. This was a significant turning point for Europe, because now states are becoming more secure in their political placement and less centered around religious dictation. Religion will continue to be a political tool, but the war proved that religion should not always unify a country with the growing amount of religious sects forming in the 17th century.

Monday, January 10, 2011

Practice test questions

  1. galileo- astronimist who improved the dutch microscope and supported heliocentricism-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Galileo
  2. Keppler- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kepler
  3. Tycho Brahe-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tycho_Brahe
  4. Capernicus- came up with a heliocentric idea http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicolaus_Copernicus
  5. what three states/empires bordered the area between france and russian-HRE, Ottoman empire-turks, Poland (republic)
  6. reformation left holy roman empire devided between catholics-eventually austria and prussia rose up as leading german states
  7. Poland-republic that elected monarch with limited authority-worked as the figurehead for polish nobility. Nobles have power. Monarchs no usually from Poland
  8. What is the problem with this?-left a lack of centralized authority figure that leads to a power vaccuum- authority is spread way out...very vulnerable
  9. 16th century who is the great leader of the Ottoman empire-suleiman the great-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suleiman_the_Great
  10. Ottomans and turks were great threats to the Hapsburg and were kept at bay-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ottoman_empire
  11. Hapsburg-seated in spain but ruled Austria as a catholic power-very multi-ethnic but catholicism unties them http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hapsburg
  12. Charles XI-reigned in first half of 18th century-*****pragmatic sanction-the territories of the hapsburg empire are inseperable; therefore, because he did not have a male heir he was going to pass his empire on to his daughter Maria Theresa. Sanction brought up so taht she would get this inheritance. In exchange, he made deals with the other countries, including england, that there would be peace. Charles dies, and almost immediately the sanction is brought into difficult situation because Frederick the Great invades part of Hapsburg empire http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pragmatic_sanction
  13. Prussia-with the rise of prussia 1. hohenzollern family was the strongest family in prussia; 2. Brandenbourg- 3. Junkers- prussian elite 4. estates- 5. Fredrick William 6. Frederick-son of William 7. Frederick William I  (Not Fredrick William) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prussia
  14. Russia- after turks took over Constantinople, Russia thought itself as continuing the Eastern Orthodox traditional- relatively isolated
  15. Tzar-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tzar
  16. Czar-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Czar
  17. Ivan the Terrible-1660-reign continues this isolation and sense of apartness from rest of europe. renaissance never takes hold in russia.When he dies, Russia goes through Time of Troubleshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ivan_the_terrible
  18. Time of Troubles
  19. Michel Romanov- new tzar of russia-makes dynasty that lasts until russian revolution-1613-1917-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Romanov
  20. Peter the Great 1789-1825revognized that russia was behind -wanted to make it more western-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peter_the_great
  21. prince henry navigator-portegul madiras and Azores
  22. Bartholomew Diaz-Portugeuse- reache tip of africa
  23. Pedro gabral-proteugul first to get around cape of good hope and then found brazil accidentally
  24. treaty of todesillas- 1493, year after colombus came to new world-effectively split south america in two with proteugues getting brazil
  25. Chritopher Columbus-spanish found america
  26. vasca de balba spainish-found pacific by sailing thoruhg panama
  27. cortez-spainish faught aztecs in mexico
  28. frencesco pizarro spanish-incans in peru
  29. small pox killed incans
  30. magellhan-spanish first man to circumnavigate the globe
  31. Ponce de leon found florida-searching for th efoutnain of youth
  32. privateers-free reign to raid spanish ships by Elizabeth-pirates from england
  33. sea dogs-john hawkins and francis Drake-privateers 
  34. 1620-PLymouth-pilgrims=puritans
  35. jamestown-1607-colonists for money