Tuesday, March 15, 2011

terms for Age of Realpolitik

  • realpolitik-political manifestation of realism-romanticism had been considered utopian and not to be trusted-pipe dreams

  • Crimean War- 1853-1856
    • Major cause: dispute between two groups of Christians over privileges in the Holy Land (Palestine)
    • a. 1852 Turks controlled Palestine agreed to Napoleon III"s demands to provide enclaves in the Holy Land for the protection of Roman Catholic religious orders
    • minor war
    • first war covered by journalists
    • first war to involve female nurses
    • 1853-Nocholas 1 moves troops to romania
    • at the time, romania was split into two 
    • Britain and france join with the turks against russia
    • britain and france allied
    • russia cut off from trade and rest of Europe

  • Florence Nightingale
    • British nurse who became a pioneer in modern nursing
    • b. During the Crimean War more men died of disease rather than by combat wounds,
    • Nightengale's "Light Brigade" superbly tended to wounded men during the war, although fatalities during to disease remained high
  • Second French Republic-
    • Constitution: unicameral legislature (National assembly); strong executive power; popularly elected president of the Republic
    • Universal male suffrage
    • president Louis Napoleon: seen by voters as a symbol of stability and greatness
    • dedicated to law and order, opposed to socialism and radicalism, and favored the conservative classes--the Church, army, property-owners, and business
  • Second French Empire
    • emporer Napoleon III: took control o gov. in Coup d'ete (december 1851) and became emperor the following year

  • Emperor Napoleon III:
  • Baron
  • Georges con Haussmann
    • infrastructure: railroads, canals, roads, reveloped
  • Credit Mobilier
    • banking: funded industrial and infrastructure growth
  • the syllabus of Errors
    • pope Pius IX issued Syllabus of Errors (1864), condemning liberalism
  • italian unification
    • after collapse of revolution of 1848-49, unification movement in Tialy shifted to Sardinia-Piedmont under King Victor Emmanuel, Count Cavour and Garibaldi
  • Falloux Law
    • Louis Napoleon returned control of education to the Church (in return for its support)
  • "LIberal Empire"
    • by initiating a series of reforms
    • napoleon III's rule
    • made model for political leaders in europe
    • demonstrated how govt could reconcile popular and conservative forces trough authoritarian nationalism
  • Count Cavour
    • served as King Victor's Emmanuel's prime minister between 1852 and 1861
    • essentially a moderate nationlist and aristocratic liberal
    • replaced the earlier failed unification revolutionaries
  • "Il risorgimento"
    • a newspaper arguing 
    • ardinia should be the foundation of a new unified italy
  • Plomberes
  • Giusepper Garibaldi, Red Shirts
    • liberated southern Italy and sicily
  • Humiliation of Olmutz
    • 1849, austria had blocked the attempt of frederick 
    • William IV of Prusia to unifiy Germany "From above"
  • Zollverain
    • zollverein (German suntans union), 
  • Kleindeutch pan
    • a unified Hermany without Austria was seen as the most practicable means of unification among various German states, particularly Prussia
  • Otto von Bismark
    • led the drive for a Prussian-based Hohenzollern Germany
    • Junker bakcground; obsessed with power
  • "Gape Theory"
  • "Blood and iron"
  • Prussian-Danish War, 1863
  • Austro-Prussian War 1866
    • Bismarck sought a localized War
    • made diplomatic preparations for war with Austria by negotiating with France, Italy, and Russia for noninterference
  • German Parliament-Reishtag
    • bicameral
  • Bundestag
    • the lower house had representatives elected by universal male suffrage
  • Franco-Prussian War
  • Austro-Prussian Empire
  • Ausgleich

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