Tuesday, February 8, 2011

French Revolution

  • trying to get out of Louis XIV's structure of absolutism
    • france could not sustain with that type of government because of the large population
    • cannot sustain on a small elite with such a large population
  • about 20 million people living in France
  • wanted to make france a free society
  • french flag-
    • red- 
    • white-
    • blue-
  • first estate-clergy-15% land
  • second estate-noblity-25% of land
  • third estate-welathy merchants to lowest peasants -bulk of population- everybody else
    • among the educated middle class, a lot of animosity and resentment from educated to nobility
    • notibly, in the fifty years between 1730 and 1780, the prices for goods and commodities rose 65%
    • the actual money people raised only rose at most 25% percent
  • the state itself is slowly running out of money despite the fact that nobility are living like kings
  • France could not get a handle on the inflation-dollar was once backed with silver

  • Louis XVI-king in 1774
    • remarkably weak monarch
    • desiccation of tax base, absolute rule,  but a weak monarch-in a volatile situation
    • stage is set for french revolution
    • Louis XVI was young and in his twenties when he became king-married to Marie Antoinette
    • she was very disliked from the French-despised
    • does not help the weak monarch anymore
    • further problems-a deacrease in availability of farmable land
      • peasantry was only owning 40% of their own land
      • always renting or leasing to do farming
      • but now there aren't any more farms to lease
      • issues compacted because people can't find farms or work
    • fear of grain shortages-huge peasantry, staple in their diet was bread
    • if there was a crisis in the farms and grain commodities go down, the peasants will either starve or revolt
      • they revolt
    • the Taille-tax on peasantry in France
      • there is clergy and nobility with much money didn't have to pay
      • owned the most and still didn't have to pay
      • only poor was taxed
  • monpeau-commision was to try to find a way to tax the nobility
    • he had commissions for the purpose of 
    • only got them angry 
  • 1788-with country on verge of bankruptcy, Louis XVI calls Estates General
    • people submit recommendations to the king then the king chooses what to do
    • had not been called in years
    • a big deal
    • voting in estates genearl had to be dispersed equally among the three estates
      • but third estate is so much larger
  • 1789-enormously powerful pamphlet sent around-thesis-you could get rid of first estate and second estate and france would be better well off
    • france fundementally is the third estate
    • gives third estate encouragement to overthrow upper estates
  • meeting in 1789 of estates general
    • third estate went directly to the king and the third estate refused to take part until the king forced all to sit together
    • third estate sees itself with revolutionary new assembly-saying that they are the true representative of the french people- National Assembly
  • first and second estate lock the national assembly out of the meeting room
    • literally locked the doors
  • june 20-1789-  national assembly moves to indoor tennis court as a meeting place-swore to continue to meet there fundamentally driving a wedge between the clergy and nobility on one side and the assembly on then other
    • swore they'd stay there until a new constitution was written
    • Tennis Court Oath
    • king basically dismisses the third estate from the meetings of the states general
  • as all of this is happening, bread prices go through the roof because there had been a bad harvest
    • in very short time, 20% of working age was out of work and there was panic in the streets
  • JULY 14-a mod attacked Bastille-an old jail that at this time was being used to house ammunitions
    • people are terrified that french military will come in and impose martial law-
    • mob tries to take the bastille to defend themselves then they burn the bastille
  • national assemblytrying to work up a new constitution-all hell breaking loose outside of the 
  • a number of nobles in fear for their lives became known as the emigrades and the point person was COUNT of ARTOIS- becomes the leader of emigrades 
    • he is the brother of Louis XVI
    • nobles that are worried about what is going on- the king sees panic in paris-
      • allows people to appoint new gov. of the city of paris
  • CITIZENS COMMITY- 
  • at the mean time King also brings up national guard to keep order
  • throwing them a bone
  • emigrates were against the revolution though
  • LAFaYETTE-beat england for French in American Revolution
    • this is the first we see the national flag of france
    • it is Lafayette that starts to use that 
    • fag is a symbol of the revolution-the man who brings flag in is but in place by the king
  • august 1789-assembly has a completed production  of the Declaration of the Right of Man and Citizen
    • listed basic human writes as Liberty, Property, Security, resistance to oppression, Freedom of Religion, Due Process of law, Taxes by Common Consent, -no taxation without representation
  • only men were allowed to take part in all of these politics but many women were involved directly in the revolution
  • Olympe deGouges-she writes an essay called The Rights of Women- and among other things that this did
    • argued on behalf of a women's right to education
    • a women's right to control property within a marriage
    • woman should be able to divorce
    • social contract in terms of gender relations -between husbands and wives, men and women
  • it went so far that the national assembly itself put this stuff into constitution in the 1790's 
  • How did the French revolution both impact political and cultural and social issues
    • direct effect on gender equality in Franc-far ahead of other countries
  • October 1789-things are at a fever pitch-huge mob
    • 100,000 people-most women 
    • march on Versailles
    • with two demands-bread and that the royal family returned to Paris
  • king submits to some claims of the national assembly and among the things that the kings agree to
    • king loses veto power over anything coming out of the assembly
    • granted suspending power where he could hole dupe legislation but gave up his absolute write to make law
  • slavery abolished-had been apart of European culture for thousands of years
    • 1789 abolished  for France
    • effects any slaves in French boarder but does not effect French colonies for a little while
  • national assembly getting its way but there is no one to collect taxes
  • seize property from church and issues paper money to compensate
    • assignats-paper money
  • then he sells the property-BIG MISTAKE
    • money is deval
    • ued with every sale of property
  • inflation goes through the roof and economic crisis is in play
  • all emigrates get their property acquired by the king to be sold
  • not the clergy is upset, third estate has signed off for concessions to them
  • with its property gone, there was little relationship between church and state like there had once been
    • bill made to separate church from state and to create a new way to elect church officials
    • everything must be passed through the church assembly
    • people are able to put parrish priests in positions for more power
  • Jaobins- met in monastery as a club to 
  • 1791-royal fmily ties to flee but is not able to do so-
    • come influential and outspoken critics of government begin to outspeak about a republic
      • the two names int rems of early frenchmen for a republic -GEORGE JAQUES DENTON, JEAN PAUL MARAT 
  • NEW CONSTITUTION 1791-
  • constitutional monarchy with one legislative branch-unicameral branch 
  • Declaration of Pillnetz- King of Austria and King of Prussia-Leopold says
    • if necessary he would use military ore to restore the government in Paris 
  • and he hoped this would scare France
  • Leopold dies and his son is not like him 
  • 1792-year one of national convention
  • went so far as to change months of year
  • hostility among the third estate and national assembly towards the first estate
  • holidays are secularized-acts of dechristianization
  • meanwhile-hapsburg netherlands is taken over by France
    • go through the netherlands liberating people
    • knocking down all feudal remainders
  • first time that citizens of france are considered citizens
    • idea of citizen comes from latin word meaning civic and  a city
    • people are invested in their cities and civilizations
    • people are invested in their government
  • dutch republic doesn't want anything to do with France
    • calls in their own friends-English and basically make a stand against French occupiers in Hapsburg Netherlands
  • in paris-national assembly now called national convetnion is spilt between 2 parties
    • Girondins-
    • Jaobins-party that wrote and ford first constitution-not revolutionaries anymore because they have gained power
  • fighting going on between girondins and Jacobins-
    • another party - "THE MOUNTAIN" comes into play
    • sit way high up in the assembly-listenign to working class
  • Louis XVI executed-working class demands monetary controls-
  • now working class says this must be fixed
    • this third party listening to them is about to make a huge move
  • national convetion appoints a commission to deal with this problem of what s going on in working class
    • COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC SAFETY-when entity known as entity of public safety wants to be your leader-runnnnn
    • wanted to protect france after this war with austria and dutch and english standing agains them
    • this turns from public safety outside to inside the country-#1 aim of committee became supressing aid of french governm
  • laws were created that negated the rights of the accused
  • if accused by treasonous of france-you have no rights
  • women banded from gathering-womens rights had been progressing from Olympe
  • things getting really messy
  • almost immediately following starts the TERROR-1793-1794
    • during this time, the convention and committee for public safety descried that the forces of the Mountain and Jacobins will unite
    • they will unite ageisnst emigrates nobles, girnodins, pull out gillotein 
  • if you were found to be anti-jacobein you could be put to death for being anti-revolutionary

  • the king was corrupt and there was a popular rise agains the king-once this succeeded there were fractions within the people's movement that took control -anyone against them was an emigrade and was executed-put to death an enormous number of people
  • victims included-marie antionette, olympe degeuges, among other people La Voisier
  • 18000-40000 killed in that year
  • in downtown paris with public executions the streets were covered with blood
  • lines of people waiting for the guillotine
  • dechristianization happens throughout country because of terror
    • church turned into army barracks
    • RobesPierre-turns on former allies
    • July 1794-both conservatives and radicals int eh convention turn against Robes Piere
  • executed by Guillotein -by that fall the committee for public safety was disbanded
  • as result of terror, economy was nearly destroyed, wages, job pops, and inflation sky rocketed
  • peasantry felt completely used
  •  thermodorans-new groups that arises
    • wrote a third french constitution-(second one was never used)
    • goes into effect in 1795
    • allowed french male citizens to vote for electors who then chose legislature
  • lower house called 500 and upper house called the Elders
  • made bicameral
  • 500 was dominant house-all members were elected by electors and electors were elected by the people
  • executive branch would last or four years-the directory
    • made of five people-checks and balances-no one can get too much power
  • there was still unrest in France
  • calming the people-Napoleon Bonaparte
    • stopped protest in street
    • got people's respect
    • new general
  • josaphine had been a widdow- had close ties to men who formed Directory
    • helped napoleon gain a military commission to go to northern Italy
    • drives out 
  • sets up Cisalpine group in Northern Italy
    • Directory wants Napoleon to comes back and Broker a deal with Austria
    • Napoleon says no and wants to keep all possessions taken from Austria
  • deatils- directory was willing to return territory to Austria in exchange for French peasants in Beliguim
  • France has an electron in 1797
  • candidates leading election were favoring the royalists and return for Louis XVIII
  • directory appeals to Napoleon what to do
  • Napoleon sends a ore against the royalist elements in French gov
  • Coup-takes out royalists and leaves three of five in directory
  • abandon elections of 1797-b/c o this emergency situation
  • france brokers make a favorable peace treaty with austria and makes maneuvers with Britain
  • rise of emporer
  • tirles and privileges of nobility are gone
  • manor houses are gone
  • guilds are gone
  • with this, the ability for people to organize was also gone

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