1) Thesis: In Voltaire’s Candide, Dr. Pangloss’s optimism causes for Candide to neutralize the gruesome occurrences that he witnesses; however, the straightest ideology brought up in the novel is Martin’s pessimism of earth but faith in God that is incongruent to the harsh inhumanities of the world.
a) Pangloss is an optimist philosopher and tutor to Candide who unfortunately almost dies of a venereal disease and faces brutal pain in being hung in an earthquake ceremony.
b) Martin is a inspiring character in the novel that travels with Candide because he has had an equally miserable life; however, Martin’s pessimistic beliefs suggest that humans must work to rise against the evil realms of society that conceal the goodness of God.
2) Pangloss is the main inspiration for Candide and Pangloss contributes to the satire by teaching the acceptance of ridiculously brash and torturous occurrences as chosen outcomes from God.
a) There is an earthquake in Lisbon and Candide believes he is dying, the men from the shipwreck are covered in debris, and all were starving with small amounts of food; but Pangloss assured to all that if there is a volcano in Lisbon then it is the best thing that God could have given to Lisbon at that time.
b) Three men were burned by wise men in a ceremony to turn away earthquakes; however, these wise men out of custom of the ceremony tried hanging Pangloss.
3) Martin joins Candide to first travel to France and then on across cities in Europe, and Martin’s pessimism quickly shook Candide with annoyance.
a) Martin and Candide watch French ships battle each other and Martin uses it as an example of how the greatest God has abandoned humans to the devil and demons on earth.
b) Martin may be without hope of making his surroundings better but he does claim that life is not worth enduring when so much theorizing about every situation is happening.
4) Candide thinks back to the words of Pangloss throughout the book and ends still believing that all of his bad times in his journey lead to his wealth in the end.
a) Martin and Candide argue often because of their opposing philosophies, and Martin continually tries to shut down Candide’s last hopes of refinding Cunegonde.
b) Pangloss is always thought of as a memorable inspiration to Candide in all of his actions throughout the story; eventhough, many of these actions lead to unexpected, unfortunate endings.
5) Candide believes that God creates his wealth, but Martin was the only character that understood that God could not possibly create such drastic, satirical situations of misery.
a) Martin understands that God could not create such horrible events, but the increasing advancements of humans have overridden God’s creations, turning to material secularism.
b) Pangloss endures many horrible incidents but still does not doubt that it was the best thing that could have happened; this hyperbole of divine appreciation proves the point of the satire in Candide.