Tuesday, January 25, 2011

Peter and Catherine Free Response

Analyze the methods and degrees of success of Russian political and social reform
from the period of Peter the Great (1689–1725) through Catherine the Great

reform-straighten out
peter-westernized Europe with his window to the west.
succeeded Sophia and Ivan the Terrible who
originallly, Peter was given power at age ten and had to be brought to the city to rule, but then Ivan struck back by throwing memebers of Peter’s family off of the Grand Red star in Faceted palace onto raised Pikes of the Guard.
Peter and Ivan ruled together, then Ivan’s sister Sophia came into rule.
Peter went to Europe and came back to take personal rule to stop the rebellions taking place from Sophia.
peter’s changes-band classic clothing and beards, established technical schools, replaced the church hierarchy, changed the alphabet, changed the calendar, changed his name to emporer, and had many other reforms
westernization-St. Petersburg
torture-his son

catherine-followed Peter’s ruling and became more successful than her husband
encouraged Peter’s reforms and followed the central rule over the provinces
produced many diplomacies
expanded european affairs
patron of the arts
took back may reforms with her consrevativeness towards the french revolution
destressed the state of the peasantry

toturous peter
conservative Catherine

Peter the Great (1689-1725) was the Russian Tzar to reshape Russia into a dominating western power, while Catherine the Great was the next Tzar to expand upon the success of Russia between 1762-1796. Peter came to reign after Ivan the terrible and Sophia of Russia; both of the rulers were unfavored by the Russian population and instigated many rebellions. Peter spent time in Europe and came back to implement hundreds of brash reforms on Russia to send it through its fastest transformation. Then after Peter died, Catherine the Great overpowered her foolish husband, Peter III, and came to power in hopes of encouraging more reforms and greater expansion. Catherine continued this liberal rule until she turned conservative during the French Revolution. Peter the Great and Catherine the Great were successfully radical in their enthusiasm for western reform in Russia, but Peter’s torturous manner and Catherine’s increasing conservativeness contributed to their decline in turning away many supporters and increased the distressed state of the peasantry in Russia
After spending a two years eagerly traveling through Europe, Peter gained understanding for industrial techniques and social structures to implement on Russia during his rule. Peter began his rule by first banning men from being able to dress in classic attire, then Peter cut off the beards of the nobles himself, seeing that beards were outdated in Europe. Peter also invested in the expensive building of St. Petersburg as the “Window to the West” that opened Russia to commerce with European nations. Upon other series of reforms, Peter’s new methods of running a nation hit Russia hard but strengthened it to become one of the leading western powers in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. When Catherine the Great came to power after the Emporer Peter the Great died, Catherine was concentrated on expanding upon Peter’s reforms and increasing the western culture of Russia. Catherine did this  a bit differently; she patronized the arts by commisioning many buildings, libraries, and artsits. Catherine also contacted French writers such as Voltaire and built the Hermitage Museum. In politics, Catherin was a skilled diplomat and kept central rule over the Russian provinces. Both Peter and Catherine expanded Russia past the successes of any former Tzars.
Peter’s radical, brash, and informal manner was not liked by all, despite his transformation on Russia. Peter was openly torturous and started his personal rule with the mass execution of Russian rebels and the hanging of them outside of Sophia’s window. Peter took many executions into his own hands during his rule and sometimes ordered nobles to watch in fear of what might happen to them. Many of the Russian nobles were also for the status quo and formality of running the country; these such nobles were against Peter for his aversion from any sort of state formality. Peter’s significant, unattractive credential was his opposition to his own son, Alexei. Alexis was for the status quo of running a nation, and Peter was deathly torturous to Alexei. After fleeting to Vienna away from his father and rising royalty, Alexei was suspected to be getting foreign backing. Peter had his own son arrested and tried for treason. Alexei was given to be executed but died from Peter’s torture wounds before undertaking the execution. Peter was informal, sloppy, and appeared common-like, but his personal indulgence in the power be overly radical and torturous lead to Peter’s downfall in popularity.
Catherine the Great was brash and expansive in her peak because of the model reign that Peter had laid down for her; however, Catherine declined as well with the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789. In this decline, Catherine became sensitive towards her power and greatly conservative. This resulted in Catherine taking back many of her reforms in hopes of turning Russia back to being equally conservative. Catherine lost popularity in this and became increasingly vile towards her criticisms. Until her death, Catherine continued to counter reform and like Peter the Great, Catherine suppressed the peasantry the most in midst of her decisions. Unlike Peter, Catherine was against capital punishment, but she lost support with her reversion to conservativeness and hostility towards her royals decisions.
The methods used to modernize Russia were ingenious of Peter the Great and Catherine the Great in the state of Russia during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; however, their multitudes of success were neutralized by a harsh decline that was brought about personally in the time of their reigns. For how common and low key Peter wanted to appear, his acceptance of brash torture was hurtful to his supporters, his non-supporters, and most significantly his family. Catherine accentuated Russia with greater expansion and Western reformation methods, but strict, abrupt reversal of these gains turned many Russian supporters against Catherine’s new ruling. With all of the methods that bring about a ruler’s climax, there are responding methods that bring upon the decline, and Peter the Great and Catherine personally found their declines in their own moral nature.

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