Elizabeth-politique-had a religion between Catholicism and Anglicanism and made every attend masses, changed sides to be on the protestants side of Dutch rebellion, Spanish armada victory because of better ships, sea dawgs
Catherine de’medici of France-Christian IX –persecuted Huguenots –St. Bartholomew’s day massacre 1588
Elizabeth I of England and Catherine De Medici of France were two woman rulers who were powerful over their subjects and were associated with two of the greatest powers of Europe in the 16th century. Elizabeth was a protestant who chose a religion between Catholicism and Anglicanism in England and enforced the attendance of Englishmen to church gatherings. Catherin De Medici was a devout Catholic of the Medici family who persecuted Huguenots in the late 1500’s. Both of these women had power over their countries, Catherine dictated the motives of Christian IV in France, especially in 1588, and Elizabeth encouraged her military to go forth in many victorious battles. Both Elizabeth and Catherine were strict in their ways of religion and both understood how to maintain their powers despite femininity, but the greatest difference between the two that made Elizabeth a great power was that Elizabeth was a politique who chose what was best for her country.
England in the sixteen hundreds was an Anglican force that was not fully purified by puritans because Elizabeth wanted a mix of religion in the Church of England. Catherine from France kept the Catholic reign going as mentor to Christian IV. Elizabeth kept strict hold on her religion; however, she was not a persecutor within her own state because she was an enforcer of nationalism. Catherine was one to persecute especially in 1588 with the St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre. Catherine enforced Christian IV to go to Paris and murder thousands of Huguenots there to celebrate Henry Navarre’s wedding. This only began the French Civil Wars in France, while England was carrying on with its international affairs.
In the French civil wars, or the Wars of the Three Henry’s, France ended with a murdered Henry Guise, and the Edict of Nantes under Henry IV. This accepted Huguenots with Henry’s conversion to Catholicism. Like Elizabeth, this is another example of a politique who puts his or her country first. Catherine did not do so with her Massacre that began turmoil within the Nation of France, and Catherine lost her ruling shortly after this occurrence. Elizabeth, however, sustained her rule with the encouragement to her military and the unifying of religion. With the Spanish Armada, Spain could not stand up against the naval quantities of England who was prepared and encouraged by Elizabeth against Phillip II. Winning this destroyed Spain and benefited to nationalize England through Elizabeth.
Catherine De Medici is a radical Ruler who used her power to disorganize the nationalism in France. It was not until Louis XIV (1643-1715), that France was fully unified through absolutism. Elizabeth gained her ability to nationalize her country through her ideas on religion and nationalism. With this foundation, Elizabeth could go on the deal with the Dutch Revolts as she took the Calvinist side to go against the Spanish. Elizabeth was not Calvinist but agreed with the liberation of the Netherlands in relation to the strict catholic ruling of the Hapsburg. Catherine may have been a powerful feminine ruler over her catholic nobility, but Elizabeth was a feminine ruler over both the parliament and her lower subjects.
Both Elizabeth and Catherine were noted leaders for their choices made on religion, but the choices made by Elizabeth to better unify her country were better suited for empowering a state in comparison for the ideals of Catherine de Medici. As a result of the reformation, Protestantism was fusing into Europe relatively powerfully. While Elizabeth understood that she would not be able to have a mono-religious nation, she intelligently decided to fuse Catholicism and Anglicanism together to form the Church of England for that time period. The persecution of such a large quantity of Huguenots made Catherine out to be powerful and intelligent in her plots, but in the greater scheme of things, national unification through one religion in that time period was not beneficiary for the strength of a state. Elizabeth I and Catherine de Medici was powerful woman that broke out of the masculine polarity of the time; however, Elizabeth was a more notable character for her unification through the greater good of her nation.
4. Protestantism-martin Luther 1517, Jon Wycliffe, john Hus-no worldliness
England-church of England becomes protestant,
Holy roman empire-greatly split with different choices over
Protestantism in the 1500’s was an idea that had not yet been verbalized until Martin Luther’s 95 Thesis in 1517, but the religious the significance of Protestantism became blown off of its religious course because of the great social and political consequences.
Protestantism’s ideals of salvation on faith alone were founded by John Wycliffe in the 1400’s, but it was not until Martin Luther came along that the sects of Protestantism began to spread across Europe. Protestantism altered Catholicism by asking that salvation is found on faith alone, that the bible is the only source of teaching about religion, the idea of consubstantiation, and that the clergy is allowed to Mary. Not far from Catholicism, Protestantism served more as a political device in the 1500’s with many following social consequences. Luther’s intentions when her nailed the 95 Thesis to the Catholic Church in Wittenberg, Germany were to bash the Catholic Clergy for their mishaps on religion; however, the creation of Protestantism from this, had greater political and social abrasions than the true significance of the religion itself.
The Catholic Church in the 1500’s was run by clergy that were wealthy and without authority. Entities such as nepotism, pluralism, simony, and absenteeism were becoming prominent in the church as they corrupted its religious nature. The lack of celibacy was not changed by the reformation, but Luther’s ideas against church hierarchy and the reversion back to following the bible socially interrupted the clergy. With the many conversions to Protestantism, priests had to crack down to conforming to catholic ideals to keep up the populations of the church. This is a prime example the social divisions that Protestantism went against and that divided the European populations against and for the catholic hierarchy.
Martin Luther served great social and even political consequences as a result of his religious ideals. In 1520, he was excommunicated as a monk from the Catholic Church in Germany, and the Union of Trent even tried to reconcile with Luther. Luther, however, was too indulged in his ideas to apologize pope for his reformation. Now that Calvinism, puritanism, Anglicanism, Anabaptism, Presbyterianism, and many other sects were emerging from the reformation, the Catholic Councils could not keep a hold of the Catholic Unity; however, Luther was one of the single men who could be pinpointed. Martin Luther was on the verge of being executed for the havoc he had begun, but he was lucky enough to be smuggled to a king’s castle to get away from the strife. Even though Luther brought about his religion of Protestantism to voice his morals and church disposition, Luther was socially bashed for starting a continental reformation and relatively quickly, Luther was condemned and almost executed.
Religion that was unified to Catholicism in the middle ages did not have a much of a political standpoint to be used as a tool to gain power. With the introduction of Protestantism, however, countries such as England with Henry VIII and The Holy Roman Empire could gain political power and ruling with the conversion of religions. Henry VIII attained great political problems with his beginning of the Church of England in the early 1500’s. The Church of England was made Protestant not because Henry had any opposition to Catholicism but rather a political tool, to unify his nobility. It was also a social tool to Mary Anne Boleyn and to annul his marriage to Catherin. With the Holy Roman Empire that was made of 300 principalities, Princes began to choose their religion their province without regard to the lack of unification that was coming out of it. This caused political issues until 1555 with the Peace of Augsburg which did not come to unify the Holy Roman Empire. Succeeding this came the 30 Years War that also left the Holy Roman Empire greatly disorganized. All of these occurrences that weakened the Holy Roman Empire are linked back to the Protestant reformation with Martin Luther in the early 1500’s.
Luther was a catholic monk himself with new ideas that reshaped what he believed to be a truer religion; however, the religious significance of Protestantism was blown off its religious course because of the great social and political consequences it had. Martin Luther experienced these issues himself in that he was almost persecuted for his ideas. The Catholic Clergy experienced much interruption to its hierarchy as many Europeans converted to protestant sects. Lastly, nations across Europe began to use Protestantism as a political tool to gain superiority and variance from other powerful nations. For those who remained Catholic, much warfare was to come after the 16th century against opposing protestant nations. Martin Luther was dignified and courageous in his nailing of the 95 Thesis on the day after All Saints Day in 1517 and in his excommunication from being a Catholic monk in 1520, but his political and social ignorance was brought out in the immense social and political changes that came out of his instant popularity.
Pilgrimage of grace- protesting against Henry’s Act of Supremacy
Doc. 1-marching on the eastern coast of British Isles
Doc. 1- honor for men to enter only because of their devotion to Catholic Church
Because of love of god
Because of holy catholic church militant
Expel all evil councilors
Doc. 2- must be ready to be robbed and tortured by scots and other defenders
Doc. 3-wounds and importance of Christ flag-bleeding heart legs and hand, chalice plow and cattle horn
Doc. 4-monks claim that the church is becoming lame
Doc. 5-petition against Luther, Wycliffe, Hus, etc. has them destroyed
Doc. 6-parliament has no authority or virtue
Doc. 7-wiser rule should govern all-catholic
Doc. 8-upset that rebellion is taking place because it is hurting the cath. Population
Doc.9- henry VIII claiming that the rebellion has done nothing to help the Catholics
Doc. 10-almost all who have write letters to VIII have been convicted
Doc. 11-commonwealth left unattended
The Pilgrimage of Grace began in 1536 by groups of Catholics in England who believed that the Act of Supremacy by Henry VIII was a corruption to England with its new taxes, laws, and expansion of royal power. These riots and rebellions went on for a full year, and during which, Henry VIII convicted 65% of the Catholics who wrote to him in the midst of the chaos (doc. 10). Rebellions were not suppressed; however, because Catholics were adamant in purifying nobles, expelling “evil” councilors, spreading their love for god, and showing honor the Catholic Church (doc. 1). One monk who was imprisoned for the pilgrimage of Grace even explained that the rebellions were only hurting the Catholic population rather than expounding upon them (doc. 8). With the Act of Supremacy, Henry VIII ordered to purify the church with Anglicanism mainly to merry Anne Boleyn, and with the Counter Reformation in England came events such as the Pilgrimage of Grace that lasted short in its time and was pointless in its effects of halting the outward expression new Protestant religions.
The Pilgrimage of Grace lasted from 1536-1537 with little effect on the ruling of Henry VIII. Henry was a new monarch that came about with great power above his classes, but many Catholics still petitioned towards him. Such even asked that the “heresies of Luther, Wycliffe, and Tyndale be destroyed,” and that the Pope of Rome should be the greatest power” (Doc.5) Whether these petitioning Catholics were sacrificing themselves with devotion or not, contradicting the king by calling his allies such as Luther, Wycliffe, and other protestants heretics, is asking for encouragement from the king. The Counter Reformation in this case of verbalizing views to the king, is a counter to the counter formers who think they are doing justice.
Catholics wanted to prove their loyalty to god in the Pilgrimage so that Catholicism was not forgotten in the midst of the reformation. The flag of the Catholics who marched had Jesus’ extremities and bleeding heart on it, the chalice, a plow, and a cow horn (Doc. 3). This was to show that Eucharist was the most significant part of religion and should not be changed to consubstantiation in protestant sects. Also, the cow horn and plow refer to the countryside people who were not benefitted by the reformation; however; the inclusion of the Pilgrimage only brought the poor peasants to greater lows because they were not able to be aided by the king and parliament (Doc. 11). While the common wealth was left unattended, and catholic population was only decreases in in the marching areas along the British Isles (doc. 8). Catholics felt they were illustrating and projecting the wounds of Christ with meaningful marches, but the wounds of Christ were still viewed by Protestants anyways and there came greater wounds on the Catholics population as a result.
Henry VIII was not in any way intimidated by these weak counter reformers. In a pardon written by him to other marchers in December 1536, he claimed “you have given comfort to your enemies…high displeasures to God who commands you to obey your sovereign in all things” (doc. 9). Catholics were immensely dense in choosing to go against the king that ultimately went against their god. It is a sin to be harsh to others and to use such flags and petitions as a way to settle religion. The entity of Christ is to treat everyman as a friend. The Catholics even noted that they would be persecuted and not accepted but they vowed to go on anyways (Doc. 2). If Catholics had taken more of the Leveler’s side of things, then they would not have believed in persecuting other; nevertheless, even Catholicism would not grant the allowance of such protesting as the Pilgrimage of Grace.
Catholics protested because they believed that the wiser rule should govern all (Doc. 7). This was a brash intimation that Catholics were more intelligent and moral than Anglicans. Catholics, however, were not intelligent at all to commit protestation that would go forth to hurt their population. Their choice of counter reforming only left them weaker and Protestantism stronger. Even if Catholics believe that parliament has no virtue to hold authority, stepping out of the morals of their religion to march against another was meaningless for Protestants when the point of the sacrifices and marches was to change the minds of English Monarchies.