Thursday, May 5, 2011

cold war

Khrushchev-ruler after Stalin-during the cold war, responsible for partial- de-stalinization

  • supported Stalin's purges 
Perstroika-political movement of Communist Party of Soviet Union-meaning-the "restructuring" referring to restructuring the Soviet political and economic system.
during the 1980's-towards the end of the soviety union
related with Gorbachev-nine years later, the berlin wall comes down
new president comes in to run the soviet as it is falling apart-Yeltson-in 92-the soviet union comes apart when Yeltson has to leave
Kennedy becomes president and is assassinated in 63-followed by Linen Banes Johnson
Johnson famously runs the ad of a young girl picking flowers when an atomic bomb alarm goesoff

  • with the fall of the soviet union-russiabecomes russian federation
  • all of the allied countries in eastern europe because independent countries
  • the countries within central asia-kasechstan, ukraine, ---become independent
  • end of soviet union-battling soviet afgahnistan war-osama bin laden was fighting soviet union-US fighting with Osama bin Laden
  • when Afghanistan wins- they turn on us

  • Relations between SOV. and US were bettered during the Strategic Arms LImitation Talks (SALT) treatyu-
  • the treaty stops the nuclear drawdown movement 

  • Sputnik program- 1957-big guiding factor that has an enormous effect on us today
  • robotic spacecraft missions launched by the soviet union- US are upset that the soviets advanced before the US with the Sputnik-
  • US makes an investment in [ublic education in math and science-changes everything
  • Kennedy claims that by the end of 1960's he wants men walking on the moon
  • spae race between russia and the US
  • we win- 1969-neil armstrong walks on the moon
  • development of NASA and military technologies lead to things we use today

  • Arba league-regional organization of Arab states in NOrt and Northeast Africa, and southwest Asia

  • czech republic-stayed a democracy during WWI
  • landlocked country in central erupt that became a republic after Cold war
  • member of nato since 1999
  • czechlislovakia and yugoslavia only heldtogether by dictators

  • genocide in 1990's
  • put down by the CLinton administration

  • Ghana-first colony to become independent from Britain in 20th century-first one in africa
  • Post Colonialism- wingspread independence of colonies from Europe
  • India becomes independent from Britian through Ghandi-
  • part of india broke up into pakisatan
  • 1950's development of paistan was a muslim state and indian muslims went to

  1. Iran-IRaq war
    1. different kinds of muslims
  2. osama bin laden and sudam husan did not like each other

  • 1967-six days of war in which isreal fights for golden heights
  • isreal and egypt

  • Margaret Thatcher-force in british politics in the 1980;s
  • conservative-staunch allie of regain and staunch anti-communist
  • in cold war against soviets


  • nelson Mandela-president of south africa in 1994-white africans had been 
  • brainwashed to have bad education and were not allowed to take part in society
  • south african independence

  • Musharraf-leader of pakistan in 1990's 
  • us will be doing business with Pakistan on the war of terrorism after 2001
  • all that time, Osama bin laden has been living in a compound next to Pakistan's military school


  • LECH-valenza leader fo solidarity movement against soviet union-won nonviolently
  • European union is developed in Bursself Belgium

Tuesday, May 3, 2011

Practice test 1

46/80

french revolution
enlightenment
russian revolution
realpolitik

atomic bomb

pacific theater-Japanese had attacked pearl harbor 1941 and the result was that the Americans entered the war against japan
battled japan across the pacific-battle of midway-US caught japanese fleet-
head up through japan and korea-brutal battles
FDR dies and truman comes int he make the decision that they had to use the atomic bomb
developed through WWII in the 30's and 40's-experiment called the Philadelphia experiment
project working not the a bomb
White sands of New mexico-allamegoro-did all of the atomic bomb testing
2 bomb dropped 150,000 people dead- 2 cities dropped off the map
russia signs 20 year pact of friendship with poland
russians were moving forward and not paying attention to provisional government that british americans had hoped for for protest 

Roosevelt had a decent personal relationship with Stalin-they felt like they could trust each other
there was complete difficulty with communism from roosevelt
stalin had compelte difficulty with us capitalism
they felt like they could be allies however
roosevelt dies unexpectedly-truman comes in
truman is suspicious of russian-soviet ambassador comes in to discuss with truman and truman rejects all fo this ideas
part fo the tension has to to do with poland-Germnay had invaded poland in beginning of WWII-Germany was out and they had to decide what to do with it
wanted a democratically elected government in poland-russia wanted a government in poland that would be a friend of russia
this causes further tension between US and Russia
in Japan, US bombers had been targeting Japanese cities like tokyo
during fire bombing of tokyo they wipe out center of the city-by autumn of 45 the war should have been over with just the continuation of conventional bombing 
there were very few industrial areas in Japan left-wanted Japanese to surrender
Eisenhower -the leader of the Allied forces against he nazi's in europe-he will become president after truman
japanese soldiers surrender
new japanese cabin made its first move


liberation of camps

Buchenbald concentration camp
liberated by us force-the day before Roosevelt died
us troops ordered german civilians to come see the camp-propaganda was untrue
all of them who found nazism a profitable faith came in nice suits-living looked at dead
nazi people could not believe the sight and the smells -
trucks full of bodies that were unable to burn
not their guilt-this camp was in their town but they had never come there-they were blameless they felt-but were they?

DACHAU-hundreds killed
after years of indescribable torture, the survivors were distraught and confused
millions had died-6 million jews-only 70,000 jewish survivors
the worst sin of the germans is tha they taught the germans to hate-longstanding contempt

Berlin May 1945-
battle fo berlin was won by the red army soviet celebration

Monday, May 2, 2011

review Facts for exam

  • Picasso first pioneered in cubism but later also practiced expressionism
  • Napoleon's continental system was aimed to-destroy british economy by boycotting british goods
  • afte war of Austrian succession-mara theresa was disappointed because fredrick kept silesia which he had seized in 1740
  • laissez-faire- means free trade-wealth is in a nations productive capability
  • Yugoslavia in the 1980's differed from Yugoslavia in the 1960's except- YUgoslavia no longer answered to the soviet union
  • in the early 20th century, before World War I, what france sot resented about Germany was its seizure of alsace and lorraine in 1871 in Franco-Prussian war
  • England did not accept the Gregorian calendar of 1582 until the middle of the 18th century because Protestants refused to accept a "catholic" calendar
  • after the assassination of Francis Ferdinand in 1914, serbie agreed to all of Austria's demands except allowing asutria to enter Serbia to search out threats
  • lenin and bolsheviks promised peace and land (bread) to peasants
  • art movements between the world wars reflected no longer making sense-dada
  • william harvey-circulation of blur
  • postwar similarity between WWI and WWII-recovery from damage and deprivation in Russia
  • HItlers Beer hall Putch in Munish in 1923 was geared to take over the government as Mussilinni had in Italy
  • the pretender generally refers to James II and his defendants who fled ENlgand in 1688 in the wake of the accession WIlliam and Mary
  • main consequence of the Dreyfus Affair in late 19th century France was-negative images of the Church and separation of schurch and state in 1906
  • Chapelier Law in France came about during the revolution-decalred labor unions and strikes illegal
  • In england, the first country to implement machinery was in -textiles
  • Themidorean Reaction-end of the terror
  • 18th century england was a time when parliament was able to strengthen its power over the monarchy mainly because the first two Hanover kinds hardly spoke enlgsh were unconcerned with english affairs
  • calvinism spread to n. america brit colonies, scotland, holland, and south african NOT NOT NOT NOT PARIS
  • GALLIPOLI-1915-an allied attempt to break into the Black Sea and connect with Russia
  • Lenin instituted the New economic Plan (NEO) to increase food supply and other products
  • following WWII, the general attitude of the Russian civilizations was great patriotism and optimism
  • Under NATO agreement, Germany was not allowed to develop nuclear weapons
  • First Russian leader to discuss the "crimes" of Stalin was KHRUSHCHEV
  • The schlieffen Plan in place in Germany on the eve of WWI had been altered to bolster Alsace and Lorraine
  • English clergyman John Wesley was part of a movement called the "great awakening" which emphasized personal, emotion religious experience; public confession of sins; caring for the poor, the sick and prisoners; outdoor, evangelical services

holocaust

  • back to 1920's Hitler bagman to write that the Jews were the roots of all of Germany's problems
  • all of these ideas were put into German law when he came into power
  • German race was the most superior race
  • must get rid of al other races-most importantly, the Jews.
  • 1933-Jewish population of Europe was over 9 million
  • by the end of the war it is less than three million-6 million killed by nazi's
  • 2/3 of total jewish population killed in holocaust-hitler called it his FINAL SOLUTION
  • therefore, german dominance could start a thousand year gain over the world
  • concentration camp-seperate families between women, men, children, elders
  • people put into lines and were evaluated for work-if they could not work they were executed
  • worked slowly to death-and starved
  • Nazi camps began to be liberated by British and US 
  • took jews and put them onto train cars and hauled them to the concentration camps-when they arrived they were split up or sent directly to the gas chambers
  • Arbeit macht frei-work will make you free (auschwitz slogan)-really work put them to death
  • when British and US first came-they found these horrific conditions in barracks, burned bodies, skeletons, etc.
  • British and US were able to fly over camps and could see the camps
  • why didn't they bomb the camps?
  • british made nazi's flee, then the british came in and found the jews

  • battle of britain- 1940-1941

  • Germany goes back on non aggression treaty with russia and invades socket union-Battle of Stalin grad August 942-February 1943 2 million dead

  • pearl harbor-japan invades US-finds common enemy with Germany in the US-supported Germany and Italy-dec. 7, 1941-draws US into the war

  • US will take on Japan at Midway-Japanese fleet is virtually destroyed and US marines go island to island and in 1945-atomic bombs dropped on Japan

  • US gets involved with Europe-first sending troops with britain into N. Africa
  • first nazi war with US was D'Day

  • Normandy Invasion 1944-general in charge of camapaign is Isenhower -will be president after Truman

  • Battle f Berlin-final major battle fo war-russians come into Berlin-racing US and Brits to ge their first. wants to get back at germany after Stalingrad-let the russians get there first out of respect/in the battle of berlin the russians lost 70 thousand men. let russia get weakened

  • HItler is in Berlin during the battle-ultimately, he and his wife commit suicide and their bodies are burned by the nazi's so that they could not be captured by the russians-berlin is decimated and the war has come to an end

  • how did it stop?-US and communists suspicious of eachother-there is a loose alliance that allows them to have a common enemy
  • 1945-Yalta conference-Roosevelt and Churchill prepare for the end of the war-decide what will happen with the borders of countries in Europe-including Poland which was exiled in it government
  • FDR dies before end of war-Truman comes along and orders bombs to be dropped on Japan to end the Japanese campaign-Turman supports the Martial Plan-out fo the Yalta conference-the borders of German will be changed and the economic situation cannot occur again in germany from WWI-reparations is now seen by leadership as a main reason for the war. a plan is developed-the US is going to make an enormous investment in rebuilding Germany . US creates the modern Europe we know today
  • societ union is agains this because they do not want the US to be incompetition with Europe at their doorstep



British Revenge

after battle of britain the royal airfare celebrated

  • night raids
  • by 1941-british had lost 700 aircrafts

Friday, April 29, 2011

Rommel

Rommel-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erwin_Rommel
german military officer known as Desert Fox
land parrot troupers behind German lines to hit them from back, bombarding them from guns on battle ships
the ships missed their targets-the British and Americans did not realize this until their landing craft landed on the beaches
largest landing force on normandy of man kind and the plan hadn't worked
parrot troups missed the spot where they were supposed to land and did not catch up to where they were supposed to be dropped
now on June 4 at DDAY-enormous invasion force getting ready to land and none of preparations have been made correctly

Wednesday, April 27, 2011

Hitler

the Furer- or the Leader of the entirety of germany public who is required to accept him as the cause of any benefit in their life
FACISM
to go against the Furer is to go against the state and they will be executed


  • in England, there is a coronation of a new king 
  • Stoland killing his own people
  • non-aggression pact-gremany and Russia say that they will not put up arms against each other
    • this will not be maintained but it occurred in 1939

  • invasion of Poland by Germany began the WWII-took Germany a month to occupy the entire nation
  • the Blitkreig-lightening war=-style of warfare that the nazi's came up with-
    • bomb the hell out of them, then bring in tanks and run them over, very fast
  • Britain marches off to war
  • hitler then turned his attention to the west
  • Britain prepared for the worst-airrade drill is practiced at schools
  • the phony war/the bore war-people tired of all the drills they must practice for the incredible things that have yet to occur

  • May 10th 1940-germany troops went to france, netherlands, norway, and belgium
  • british troops in france were retreating
  • civilians in france got together their belongings and abandon their houses to get away from war
  • troops were hungry and thirsty

  • nazi's getting best of treatment
  • 300,000 exhausted soldiers were 
  • last of british allies in france in 1940 leave because of being under so much heavy fire from Germany artillery
  • France is split into n. and s. areas. 
  • its called Vichy France- german people govern nation
  • vichy france is a hot bed of france resistance where they fight agains the germans
  • french people were refugees until they could not find any other place to go

  • Winsten Churchill-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winston_Churchill
  • churchill is know for making the victory sign-reversed is the way British people flip the bird
  • the blitz-heaving bombing of english cities-in the skies
  • 40,000 people killed and 2 million homes destroyed
  • BATTLE OF BRITAIN-won by Britain

  • Hitler prepares for a new war-invading soviet union-
  • Hitler cannot crush Britain and Britain withstands the blitz
    • nightly airbomonbing in 1940-1941 for 6 months
    • hitler does not go for a land invasion
    • chooses to invade soviety union
  • invading cities because that is where the infrastructure and industrialization is

operation Barbarosa-name Nazi's gave to invasion of Soviet Union
  • 3 million men move to east
  • treaty with russians is about to be invaded
  • german officers toasted largest army force in history
  • june 22, 1941-german troops cross boarder
  • 1000 miles of war from Baltic to Black Sea
  • 3 million soviet soldiers were captured
  • prisoners of war die

  • Germans head towards moscow
  • fail to take moscow and many years of bloodshed to come.

Tuesday, April 26, 2011

World War II

most demanding section on the AP exam

http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/ww2_summary_01.shtml

soviet union-reamins an allie with partners from WWI
however, they are becoming more isolated as they take on the project of creating a communist society
increase industrialization because they need factories to make ammunition and military materials


MASSIVE INDUSTRIALIZATION IN THE ADD UP TO WWII
especially with Germany-growing power and contempt because they have reparations to pay-this adds to the anti-Semitic feelings in Germany
-hitler-anti soviet, anti-communist, and anti-jew
hitler was not working in a vacuum-
facism-in Italy with Moussolini; becoming dictator and ruler of new roman empire
invades north africa to go for oil well and trade routes there
lingering relationship going back to 1920's today
FACISM-beleif in a very select view (dictator) ruling the governmental power of the people. in the hands of private interest with direct connection to dictator-no say at all
give people pleasant life for this
spreads to spain
facist in Spain are lead by GENERAL FRAnCO-spanish civil war-consider it the precursor to WWII
Franco allows German air force to practice its bombing runs by bombing civilian population of Guernica, Spain
Basques-people lived on Spanish side of Pyronese
thousands dead-picasso's painting GuernicaPicasso-Guernica.jpg
Germany becomes a hotspot for scientific thinkers
In prison, Hitler writes a book on the reason for the troubles in germany-Jews and Socialists
hitler has more power out of jail
hitler wanted to confuse his audience-hitler was anti-socialist-calls his party the NATIONAL SOCIALIST PARTY-propoganda against germany population
georbbles-minister of propaganda

hitler had been in power for four years
civil war in spain was a dress rehearsal for second WW
the democracies of united sates and britain had failed to aid against fascism initially
George XI was corinated in England during this time

united states was emerging from its economic problems

1939-nazi germay was strong and confident
land was seized in slovakia
Germany was in depression when HItler first came to power
England-king of England abdicated the throne-king Edward fell in love with a girl from Baltimore and left the throne for her
George XI must come to throne
hitler solidifies power unto himself
parliament of Germany catches fire-Hitler as Chancelor takes emergency measures
--claims parliament is barred and he must take full power of Germany
--hitler works on industrialization of the country; wants to build a modern army
----tanks become serious weapons of warfare
-blitzcreig operations
british army appeases Germany-does not want to go to war because of the travesty that happened to England in WWI-more than happy to come to terms with Germany
Franco comes to power in spain-wants to crush Republicans in country
-spanish civil war-bakced by fascists
-republicans backed by rest of western europe, except Eng and US never "formally" join the war
fascists win and franco takes power-fracists have spain italy north africs and germany
Hitler feels confident and stars to make his move
1939-annexes austria-took it for Germany
British starting to see that Hitler was not what he said he was
HIter claimed he would keep the German boarders in place-Hitler will invade poland and france is protesting this, russia is protesting this,
hitler goes right into poland and rolls it over in a week
polish army was completely un prepared

Friday, April 15, 2011

Art 1-high powers coming together to hopefully make a peaceful agreement.
doc. 2 Should one of the High Contracting Parties be attacked by another Power, the other High Contracting Party binds itself hereby, not only not to support the aggressor against its high Ally, but to observe at least a benevolent neutral attitude towards its fellow Contracting Party
doc 8-serbia and austria tension.

World War began in 1914 when Austrian Emporer Francis Ferdinand was assented by Serbian Nationalists and Germany declared war on Russia because it thought war was inevitable. Alliances were made with countries such as Britain and France who had been prior competitors over imperialist land-owning's. Overall, these alliances with France, Russia, and Britian were made with Serbia to enclose Germany, the great rising force of the 20th century. The war was thought to be inevitable because of the accumulative tensions between the greatest empires of Europe in which people hoped would come to a peaceful, balance-of-power agreement (Doc. 1).  The deepest and most pure reason for the beginning of World War I can be summed up by the idea of racism between the powers of Germany, Serbia and Austria and France and Britain, but if the largest powers had not become the most racist subjects of the war, then the war would not have been so prolonged and devastating.
Germany had grown into a great industrial and political power in the end of the 19th century, but this was because of the influx in nationalism after the enlightenment. Germans taught and encouraged nationalism throughout the youth who grew into this century of war. With this, by the 19th century leading up to the war, other nations believed that Germany was apart of a social race that was better gifted intellectually than other races (Doc. 3). Another source suggested that Germany itself understood that concepts of great power in geopolitics before the war, but it did not have the material backing in the war to fully dominate (Doc. 4). Then, when Germany went to war with Russia, it obliged because Germany considered the military of Russia a good challenge for the german militia (Doc 9).There are all underlying examples of how Germany embraced its power and thought itself a race above the rest of the European powers that seemed to not stand a chance against Germany.
Serbia and Austria were the first to start World War I because of the assassinating of Austia-Hungarian emporer, Francis Ferdinand (Doc. 8). This occurred because of the contempt built up for Austria by the Serbian nationalists. Austria and Russia were infuriated by this mentality of the Serbs and felt that their greater powers needed to penalize the small serbian country (Doc. 8). In the Declaration of war between Serbia and Austria, it proclaimed that Serbia communicate with manners to the Austrians after the assassination, and their war was then declared (Doc.7). The Austrians took Serbia's lack of an answer as an agreement to begin World War I, because they believed they were the higher power. Lastly, Austrians described early before the war that the agitation and anxiety that Serbians put forth against Austrians has lead to the assassination of Francis Ferdinand, because Serbian grew in nationalism to confront the powerful Austrian empire (Doc 8). These long lasting tensions between Austria and Serbia proved that Austria was openly racist on Serbia because of Austria's power, and Serbia reacted with a wave of nationalism.
France and Britain are a different case to Germany, Austria, and Serbia, because the aggression towards France from Germany caused for the alliance of France and Britain (Doc. 2). Before the war however, Britain and France had been largely opposing empires that battled for power over imperialism in Africa and Asia. When Germany went to war with France, Italy was a supporter of Germany that promised to give support to Germany against France whenever it needed it; likewise, when France went to war with Germany at the Battle of Verdun, Britain saw that France needed the support of troupes (Doc. 2). From here, France, Russia and Britain allied despite their imperial inquisitions. Britain was considered at first to be the mediator of the Serbian allies (Doc. 9). In the power struggle between France and Britain, neither decided to compete for power because they recognized the rationality of mutual support and alliance.
Overall, racism was the greatest instigator of World War I, but the reason why the war was no easily resolved was because the greatest powers greatest the greatest tensions and prejudiced ideals. Germany had great power in the 19th century and because it great nationalism it spread itself too thin across Europe and could not dominate all at the same time. Austria and Russia went up against serbia because it  felt it could easily take on the lower power of Serbia, but Serbia had many alliances as well that supported the smaller country. Finally, France and Britain were successful aids to each other because they were equal in power and dropped their competitiveness to support each other throughout the war. If all of the countries had had a balance of nationalism but mutual respect for each other then these alliances and tensions would not have accumulated into the first World War.

Wednesday, April 13, 2011

Timeline of WWI

January 18, 1871-Bismark unifies Russia and German Kingdoms-William I proclaimed Kaiser
May 10-French signs treaty to end Franco-Prussian watr
1888-William I dies and William II becomes ruler
1894-Nicholas II becomes Tsar of Russia
1901
1904-1905
january 22
1906
1914
June 28, 1914-Franz Ferdinand is assassinated in Sarajevo-duke of Austia-hungarian empire
july 28-austria-hungary declares war on Serbia
war between austria and serbia
Austra hungary allies with russia
french allied with russia-allied with Serbia
italy with austria
english allies with Russia
Aug.1-germany declares war on Russia
aug 3-germany declares war on France
Aug 4-Germany declares war on Belgium to defeat France quickly-britain then declares war on Germany
Aug 6-austria Hungary declares war on Russia
aug22- "The Battle of the Frontiers" 27,000 frrench soldiers die on this day in an offensive trust to the east of Paris, towards the German borders
August 26-30-German army achieves its greatest victory of the war on the Eastern front against Russia at the Battle of Tennenberg-led by ErichLudendorff and Paul 
sept. 5-10-first battle of the Marne halts German incision in France
Sept 15-Frist teaches of the Western front are dug
Dec. 25-Unofficial Christmas truce declared by soldiers in the trenches along the Western Front
-beginning of trench warfare

1915
jan.-war becomes total war-with German Zeppelin air raid on England
feb. 4-germany declares submarine blockade 
april 25-allies begin nine-month battle for turkish peninsula Gallipoli
May 7-U-boat sunks in Lusitania. 1,198 civilians inclusing 128 americans die
aug30-germany responds to US anger by ceasing to sink ships without warning
sept5-tsar nicholas takes command of the russian armies
sept 15-british use gas in battle near Loos, but shifting winds cause 60,000 British casualties
Dec. 19
Dec. 28




Romanticism is reaction against neoclassicism
realism is a reaction against romanticism
Impressionism is a reaction against Realism
modernism-picasso
pop art-

Monday, March 28, 2011

socialism dbq

Socialism branched from Republicanism in the early 19th century, because people came to disapprove unequal distribution of wealth and goods. Socialists wanted equal rights for all, but they were opposed to upper class people who received more income for less work with little impact on society. Marxism branched from socialism because the German men, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels agreed that middle class workers deserved irrational differences in wages from other workers of other trades. They came to be against government and religion, because Marx and Engel concluded that it was run by the upper class. Therefore, the socialist movements of the 19th century urged to improve the treatment of the working class, while people such as Saint-Simon fantasized that the upper class be illuminated so that only the functional workers were running society. Socialism Marxism are based on equality, but because everyone would be given a set, equal income, there would be a large decrease in work ethic and increase in fatalism as there would be nothing extra to work for.
The family in figure 1 appears run down because they are working to keep the family alive; they are an illustration of the socialist observation. The family is lost in the crowd of middle class people that are in the same situation. If the family got enough money from their jobs to feed the children, then they would be able to treat their work with less fluster because of its success. This would not get them away from the middle class, however, because there would be no competition to get there; all of the people around them would be getting paid the same. The expression of the faces in the paintings would change from being completely tired, but the eargerness would be gone. The middle class envied the upper class for not having to work as much to survive, but with equal wages, the middle class would be able to work without the worry of survival but without the luxuries of the upper class.
The couple in figure 2 are apart of the upper class that has the luxury to walk through Paris with the rank of success and happiness, even on rainy days. These are the people that Saint-Simon wished to eliminate in society, because they seemingly do nothing that implies hard work. These men got these lives because they were born into a wealthy family or had the opportunity and education to fill a wealthy position; however, under socialism, they would have the same job but they would get paid less. Therefore, the same amount of seemingly little work would be done by these men but they would be paid as much as any middle class worker. The painting shows content expressions in its characters, and through socialism, this would not change beyond a bit of corruption due to the loss of income; however, their jobs and living would not change.
Equal pay helps the middle in minute ways, but fantasizing of a planned society where everyone is the same would backfire with many more problems in both the upper and middle class. People of the middle class would gain money, but not enough money to climb from their position in society. The upper class would lose its income, but because everything would change accoringly, their position in society would not change much either. The paintings shown by figures 1 and 2 well depict the differences in classes of the 19th century, and with industrialization of the period, the domination of the upper class was enhanced. With socialism and Marxism, workers created unions for change and equality, even though equality was not an easy answer. Fatalism was what the middle class was trying to surmount, but equal pay and a loud voice would only fixate the middle class in their social situation.

Friday, March 18, 2011

second FRQ


With the French Revolution, revolutionaries in France wanted democratic ruling and the ability to contend with the first and second estates. Middleclass men rose violently through the French revolution to become oppressive rulers themselves, simply as the tables became turned. Garibaldi and Mazinni were seen as liberals who wanted democracy through an extent of peace in the Italian fight for unification. Mazinni was the original peacemaker that brought about a following that Garibaldi came to rule afterwards. The unification of Italy was successful to an extent; however, the Papal States continued to isolate Northern Italy from Southern Italy. French revolutionaries achieved democracy and an overturn of the government, but many hardships were met following the success. Overall, Mazinni’s and Garibaldi’s search for peace lead to a tension bound nation that still exists today, while Robbes Pierre and others from France created a revolution that does not extend to the present. Eventhough, the French revolution was horribly violent, the stricter, more organized rule over a people in a revolution is more beneficial in comparison to the peacemaking the Mazinni and Garibaldi cherished in Italy.
            In the French revolution, Robbes Pierre and his men from the National Assembly began in the lower class, but as their power came they took advantage of the authority. Millions of innocent French people were killed in the French revolution and in the aftermath of the war, there were still countless riots. Several constitutions were made and remade but the country was still in turmoil and the distinction of classes was also present. This was not worth the loss of millions of people, but the French did come to find more unification in the Napoleonic era and generations to follow. Today, France is a wealthy, transient city that does not have apparent effects that came from the French revolution.
            Italy, on the other hand, still experiences a split of classes between the North and the South, and many stereotypes come from this that are rooted from the period of Emanual Victor, Mazinni, and Garibaldi. Mazinni and Garibaldi wanted unification of Northern and Southern Italy with mindsets that are similar to today’s liberal terms. Austria was quite powerful over Italy in this time, however, and it was grueling to get out of the clutch of Metternich’s powers. Mazinni and Garibaldi were able to unify with Lombardy, Peidmont Sardinia, and the southern provinces, but the Papal States were kept out of the unification, as the pope did not want to be given power. This isolation from the unified pieces of Italy caused for a makeshift peace that has not fully solidified even until today. Relatively less violence was used with Mazinni and Garibaldi, but the job of unification was not done like in France.
            If each of these nations had seeked unification in a way that meets equilibrium of violence and peace, then the nations could have unified more smoothly. Robbe’s Peirre did not have the right to kill random French people who somehow rubbed him the wrong way. If he had divided the people who were proven to be against his ideas from the bystanders of the revolution, then a large fraction of people may not have died. The second estate of the French revolution had gotten too much power and became the exact people that they despised enough to start the revolution in the first place. With Mazinni and Garibaldi, however, they’re non violent mindset was too weak in comparison to the strength of Austria-Hapsburh and the authority of the pope. Violence is never the answer but unfortunately, it did does not always finish the mission when people like Garibaldi are up against Metternich.
            Killing innocent people is always going to be inhumane but at least Robbes Pierre found control over the French; meanwhile, and Mazinni and Garibaldi were innovative in their ideas, but in the realist era, they should have sacrificed some peace to fulfill future unification. The French revolution eventually paid off, while the Italian unification was less harmful but has still left strings undone; therefore, it should be learned that peacemaking could not be the optimum plan to succeed at this large task. Robbes Pierre, however, was past a realist, maybe a surrealist, because he killed people that would not help his position in any way. Ultimately, there is a place for making peace and there is a time for violence, but an infusion of both may be the best solution in many of these historical events. 

Tuesday, March 15, 2011

terms for Age of Realpolitik

  • realpolitik-political manifestation of realism-romanticism had been considered utopian and not to be trusted-pipe dreams

  • Crimean War- 1853-1856
    • Major cause: dispute between two groups of Christians over privileges in the Holy Land (Palestine)
    • a. 1852 Turks controlled Palestine agreed to Napoleon III"s demands to provide enclaves in the Holy Land for the protection of Roman Catholic religious orders
    • minor war
    • first war covered by journalists
    • first war to involve female nurses
    • 1853-Nocholas 1 moves troops to romania
    • at the time, romania was split into two 
    • Britain and france join with the turks against russia
    • britain and france allied
    • russia cut off from trade and rest of Europe

  • Florence Nightingale
    • British nurse who became a pioneer in modern nursing
    • b. During the Crimean War more men died of disease rather than by combat wounds,
    • Nightengale's "Light Brigade" superbly tended to wounded men during the war, although fatalities during to disease remained high
  • Second French Republic-
    • Constitution: unicameral legislature (National assembly); strong executive power; popularly elected president of the Republic
    • Universal male suffrage
    • president Louis Napoleon: seen by voters as a symbol of stability and greatness
    • dedicated to law and order, opposed to socialism and radicalism, and favored the conservative classes--the Church, army, property-owners, and business
  • Second French Empire
    • emporer Napoleon III: took control o gov. in Coup d'ete (december 1851) and became emperor the following year

  • Emperor Napoleon III:
  • Baron
  • Georges con Haussmann
    • infrastructure: railroads, canals, roads, reveloped
  • Credit Mobilier
    • banking: funded industrial and infrastructure growth
  • the syllabus of Errors
    • pope Pius IX issued Syllabus of Errors (1864), condemning liberalism
  • italian unification
    • after collapse of revolution of 1848-49, unification movement in Tialy shifted to Sardinia-Piedmont under King Victor Emmanuel, Count Cavour and Garibaldi
  • Falloux Law
    • Louis Napoleon returned control of education to the Church (in return for its support)
  • "LIberal Empire"
    • by initiating a series of reforms
    • napoleon III's rule
    • made model for political leaders in europe
    • demonstrated how govt could reconcile popular and conservative forces trough authoritarian nationalism
  • Count Cavour
    • served as King Victor's Emmanuel's prime minister between 1852 and 1861
    • essentially a moderate nationlist and aristocratic liberal
    • replaced the earlier failed unification revolutionaries
  • "Il risorgimento"
    • a newspaper arguing 
    • ardinia should be the foundation of a new unified italy
  • Plomberes
  • Giusepper Garibaldi, Red Shirts
    • liberated southern Italy and sicily
  • Humiliation of Olmutz
    • 1849, austria had blocked the attempt of frederick 
    • William IV of Prusia to unifiy Germany "From above"
  • Zollverain
    • zollverein (German suntans union), 
  • Kleindeutch pan
    • a unified Hermany without Austria was seen as the most practicable means of unification among various German states, particularly Prussia
  • Otto von Bismark
    • led the drive for a Prussian-based Hohenzollern Germany
    • Junker bakcground; obsessed with power
  • "Gape Theory"
  • "Blood and iron"
  • Prussian-Danish War, 1863
  • Austro-Prussian War 1866
    • Bismarck sought a localized War
    • made diplomatic preparations for war with Austria by negotiating with France, Italy, and Russia for noninterference
  • German Parliament-Reishtag
    • bicameral
  • Bundestag
    • the lower house had representatives elected by universal male suffrage
  • Franco-Prussian War
  • Austro-Prussian Empire
  • Ausgleich

POlitics in the "Long 19th Century" 1789-1914

  • French Revolution and Napoleon 1789-1815
    • nat'l assemlbly
    • legislative assembly
    • nat'l convention
    • Directory
    • Consulate
    • Empire
  • Age of metternich
    • Concert of Europe
    • Revolutions of 1830 and 1848
    • Reforms in Birtain
    • LIberalism/nationalism vs. conservatism
    • Romanticism
  • Age of Reaoplitik
    • Second French empire
    • Crmean War
    • Unification of Germany
    • Unification of Italy
    • Aus
  • Age of Mass politics
http://history.berkeley.edu/faculty/Anderson/H275B.001/

Monday, March 14, 2011

Thinkers of the enlightenment pondered divine revelation within human beings and their individual take on God's actions. In the Romantic era, however, nature is often thought of separately than God. Ideologies of atheism and gothic mindsets came about through poetry and art and revolution in the soul was brought upon in Romantic music. Where as the enlightenment brought about new ideas that challenged the brains moral thoughts, Romanticism aimed to strike the soul which was a place never publicized before. It is most important to recognize that the apparent significance of God and his preoccupation within people's actions is abscent in Romanticism, because all advances are made throughout the era through inspiration that is nature rather than divine. The experimentation away from religion and towards natural inspiration was the key ingredient for people to get away from the structure of divine enlightenment thinking and towards the most poignant works  of art, poetry, and music created in the Romantic era.
Art in the Romantic era was successful for artists such as  Blake, Delacroix, and Turner, because they transferred their own personal emotions into heartrending works let each viewer take a personal interpretation of the work. In Lady Liberty Leading the People by Delacroix, the contours of the figures in the art are on a diagonal towards Lady Liberty. This strikes movement in the viewer's perceptions, and the vibrancy of the colors strikes emotion in the subject. with this work, people could look at the painting and get a sense of the significance of freedom from their own souls and not the mathematical mind of an artist. In Turner's Slave Ship, not one straight, clean edge appears in the masterpiece. Instead, there is a fogginess about the work that allows for colors to infuse together and create a picture easily understood by the eye. It's lack of exact drawing, however, lends people the opportunity for free interpretation. In William Blake's watercolor of a woman in a white dress laying upside down on a bed, with Satan grinning next to her, and a white horse peering anxiously into the room, a person gets a sense of romance   and harsh emotion between the purity and corruption. Almost every grown person that looks at the painting can be reminded of an event of corruption that renders their soul. The devil was such a feared entity in this time, and a piece like this brings about honesty yet equal emotional sarcasm in the idea. Romantic art is not about clarity, rather simplistic washes that can hit every viewer's internal emotions.
Romantic poetry focused often on nature, but also on the loss of touch with religion. The first poignant works of poetry came from this era because peots followed no formula or scheme. Percy Shelley posted a poetic work on the door of a church about being atheist and claiming himself a life like Jesus. This was said to be blasphemy and sins to religions; however, this was also a way for Shelley to get out his emotions in a way that was never expressed before. Elightenment thinkers revolved around God, but Romantic poets traveled within a life within God to see how they were effected; the greatest poetry of all time came from this era because of this. John Keats observed his life and expressed his honesty about his life coming to an end. Ceasing to exist had never been thought about, because with optimistic thoughts in the enlightenment, everyone went to see god in their afterlife. Keats found life in nature and earth much more important, on the contrary, because he knew it well and could express himself within it. Poetry of the Romantic era took ideas of nature and death before God because poets often came to the conclusion that they could not be promised a life after death.
Music of the Romantic era most easily hit the soul, because the mind did not have to be used, rather the heart could listen. Death, life, climax, and conflict were all expressed in Beethoven's symphonies, where crescendos, decrescendos, key changes, and tempo changes were all utilized to tell a store that was different for every person. Franz Shubert and Frederic Chopin gave much of their music these beautiful sound qualities and note patterns that had an immense realm of sadness within them. THese emotions felt from the music are unexplainable most of the time because it is not up to the mind to ponder the sounds. The should of a listener is expertly manipulated in the music so that feelings are felt that have never been felt before and memories are brought back that hit ricochet through the human frame. It had never been identified before that music could be made foremost for the heart of the people and not for the commission of a profession. Most importantly, music was made by theses composers through natural inspiration and strictly not by divine inspiration.
The visual aspect of art, the visual and auditory aspects of poetry, and the auditory aspect of music in the Romantic era was superior to any new thought that came through the Enlightenment, because the natural imagination of the body and soul of a person was encouraged with Romanticism. The art allowed for people to interpret the given scenes that portrayed constant motion. Poetry of the Romantic era put words into place that hit the soul in a way that was addicting because it was far against what had bee publicized before. Music, finally had life-changing qualities because it was made from natural inspiration that all listeners could understand. The enlightenment was full of thoughts that were in minute transition from culture of Europe, but the ideas of the Romantics set aside any hint of political, social, and economic factors that often structures a population.

Saturday, March 12, 2011

rough draft 1


By the early 20th century, women were beginning to experience minute intimations of civil equality, and because of the First World War, jobs were opening up for women, but it would take countless alterations for women to fairly change their status. The feminist movement based itself around equating women’s political, social, and economic rights to men. One perpetual observation of the feminist movement is that women changed their clothing silhouettes correspondingly, and as a result; the fashion plunges also changed the view of women. Women wanted their clothes to radiate independence and control without showing their subjugation from men any longer. As women took faith in their self-reliance, feminine clothing would evolve with new practical trends that men could not direct. In the early 20th century, European women of the feminist movement were gaining attention through protests for women’s rights, but the most powerful protest was the visual demonstration of women’s independence through the revolutionary clothing designs of Gabrielle Chanel and Madeleine Vionnet.
            To fathom the essence and work of Chanel and Vionnet, certain works should be well read. The Collection of the Kyoto Costume Institute of Fashion; A History from the 18th to the 20th Century, is a fashion textbook written by a collection of authors that covers major designers from the 18th century to the 20th century. This textbook full of primary photographs and encyclopedic facts is used as a school textbook for major fashion schools such as Parson School for Design. Gabrielle Chanel and Madeleine Vionnet were both well included in this compiled work. Then, for Chanel, an essay in reaction to Chanel, novels with quoted Chanel, and other photographs were used to gain information on Chanel. For Madeline Vionnet, another compiled work and quoted material was utilized and a journal written in response to a Vionnet exhibit. Both Gabrielle Chanel and Madeline Vionnet lead impressive enough lives to have these numerous works written about them. 
            There are numerous terms significant and unique to fashion that these designers were dealing with in their height of production. Feminism is explained by The Oxford Dictionary as the advocacy of womens rights on the grounds of political, social, and economic equality to men. Gabrielle Chanel and Madeleine Vionnet created clothes that encouraged feminism in ways that were unexpected by men. The clothes of these designers were practical for all women, but eventually Chanel and Vionnet became famous enough to own their own design corporations of fashion houses as Haute Couture designers. Haute Couture clothing is considered to be high-quality products sold through supreme fashion houses that Chanel and Vionnet ran in Paris (Oxford). CoCo Chanel was inspired by minimalist dress of flappers who cut their hair short and wore straight fitting dresses for dancing in the early 1900s (Thames & Hudson). Vionnet was best known for her drapery: The art of creating a dress or garment simply by arranging fabric around a body using the natural fall of the fabric and techniques like pleating, gathering” (Bland New York). It was through these specific inspirations and techniques, that Chanel and Vionnet became the head of two of the most successful fashion houses in their time.
         The turn into the 20th century brought upon a revolutionary change in women’s clothes away from the whalebone, constricting corset, towards a fit to the natural shape of a woman.  French designer of the 1920’s, Gabrielle CoCo Chanel (1883-1971) found it necessary for women’s clothing to be functional and youthful as women were finding more work opportunities in society (Picardie 69). Through women’s suits, men’s inspired clothing, and the famous little black dress, Chanel made a mark for women in the feminist movement. Letting women take control of their image, despite the standards of men:
         “It was she who brought sense and comfort to female
          clothes, shifting their control from the viewer to the
          wearer, from how clothes looked to men to how they
          felt to women.” (Updike 466)
Through Chanel flapper minimalist inspiration, she was urged to do away with heavy weight and complexity of the clothing of the time (Updike). Chanel explained “Some women want to be gripped inside their clothes, never. I want women to enter my dresses and to hell with everything else,” because Chanel did not want the beauty of clothing to be a hindrance to a woman’s daily life (Wallach). Overall, the designs of Chanel were practical and logical to make a woman feel good about herself and to show how she wished to be taken by men (Wallach).
            American Vogue considered Chanel “The Ford of Fashion” because she came up with a realistic fashion science that affected nearly every woman in the first half of the 1900’s (American Vogue). This phrase by American Vogue took the successful, universally known masculine name and applied it to a woman; this is one of many experiences where Chanel accomplished gaining equality to men.For the feminists, Chanel sought to found issues in her everyday-life that she felt applied to other women that could be resolved in her future designs (Picardie). For example, during WWI, Chanel made her clothing waterproof with deep pockets and raisable cuffs so that women could still shop despite the absence of transportation (Picardie). Then, after spending time on the beaches of the Riviera, Chanel thought to put straps on a cork sole and make sandals (Picardie). Therefore, it was not just about designing for herself, because Chanel found that every European woman could benefit through the help of her new designs
         It was not only external issues that Chanel seeked to resolve in her clothing; it was also her wish to let clothing compensate for feminine self consciousness in a way that was not restricting (Madeson). Once when walking into a gala of wealthy people that she had to make an impression on, Chanel explained “my timid entrance, my awkwardness which contrasted with a wonderfully simple white dress, attracted people’s attention” (Picardie 70). On this occasion, Chanel realized that the wealthy women in the room, who revolved around showing off their assets of wealth, were alarmed by Chanel’s unexpected appearance. It was the new shocking simplicity of her attire that the women did not expect to catch so much attention (Picardie). Another shocking aspect of Chanel’s early designs was that they proved that Chanel made choices about her image that was independent of the men in her life; in fact, the double “C” in the Chanel symbol came from a clash Chanel had with her boyfriend, boy Capel (Hirst). The diverging “C’”s are even today a universally known symbol, but underneath the fame it a story the reiterates how Chanel and her clothes are symbols of feminine self-government (Picardie). 
            In 1917, Gabrielle was invited to an opera with her friends, and in the disastrous event of getting dressed and accidentally exploding the gas burner in her bathroom CoCo settled for a little black dress (Wallach). In the explosion, Chanel’s white dress was engulfed in soot and her hair was fried. Chanel cut her waist-length hair up to her chin and impulsively grabbed a black dress but was astonished to find incredible youth in the new look. “With bobbed hair and a little black dress, Chanel was neither slave girl nor wife, but something of her own making” (Percardie). Chanel claimd that everyone at the Opera was looking at her, they were impressed that “the darling of the English became the beauty of Paris” (Picardie 87). With this coincidental situation, Chanel made famous an eternally timeless dress that can draw exciting attention for women in almost any occasion.
            The man behind the Chanel symbol, Chanel’s true love of the time, Boy Capel, died in a sudden car accident in 1919; Chanel mourns by wearing black (Hirst). Chanel persevered through the mourning of Capel “out of the past and into the future, wearing black as a symbol of strength and freedom” (Pircardie 93). Then the black dress turned into the chicest garment of the decade and was considered a uniform as dependable as the Ford automobile in 1926 by American Vogue (American Vogue).Chanel was from then an independent woman and symbol; she never married and proved that she could make a successful, famous living through her determination and revolutionary designs that sparked a notion in feminism. Chanel concluded about her little black dress: “I imposed black; it’s still going strong today, Black wipes out everything else around” (Wallach).
         Numerous celebrities advocated Chanel’s designs during and past her age; these were successful women advirtising their clothing to display their self-achievements. In 1963, Jackie Kennedy wore a Pink Chanel suit on a presidential visit to Dallas; Kennedy chose the pink suit and hat to radiate the simplicity and elegance that her husband especially admired.It was that day that JFK was shot and killed in the parade. Jackie Kennedy’s suit was stained with blood and endured the shocking tragedy of the day along with her (Figure 3). By the end of the same day Kennedy walked with the hurse of her husband, wearing the same chanel suit that was now stained with her husband’s blood (picardie 289). From then on, Jackie Kennedy became a universal symbol of women’s strength and her Chanel suit has gone down in history with it. Other powerful symbols that accentuated the success of Chanel are women such as Marilyn Monroe and Elizabeth Taylor. Marilyn Monroe famously wore Chanel’s top selling perfume, Chanel No. 5 (Figure 4). Elizabeth Taylor wore the quilted Chanel suit and sported the quilted Chanel for advertisements as well. All of these women were strong women in society who were able to make fortunes equal to men and who loved Chanel’s clothing for accentuating their capabilities (Picardie).
            Chanel died in 1971, but her fashion house is still a top running Haute Couture line. Chanel brought her company to that height of success because she did not let her gender altercate with her ideas. She once explained, “How many cares one loses when one decides not to be something but to be someone” (Karbo). Therefore, Chanel wished to express this idea through her clothing, that once a woman loses her self-consciousness in their clothing, many major tensions that allow male dominance would be weakened. Through her fearlessness to express only true feeling, seen in the little black dress, Grabrielle Chanel could perfect her designs to protest these real feminine feelings. At one point, Chanel was the richest self-made woman in the world, but Chanel continued to do much of the design labor herself even in her later years, because it was her mind showing through in her designs that gave a woman supreme carelessness to social tensions (Updike).
            Madeleine Vionnet was a revolutionary French designer in the 1920’s who believed that clothing should make one effortless statement that gave women natural grace. Her simplistic clothing flats realized to drape upon the natural shape of like a soft glaze encapsulating a woman (Taschen 404).With this, Vionnet excluded any fabric and stitching that took away from the curves of the female body in her designs (Arnold). After viewing an early exhibit of Vionnet’s work, novice designer, Issey Miywake, expressed,
 The impression was similar to the wonder one feels at
 the sight of a woman emerging from bathing, draped
only in a sinlge piece of beautiful cloth. It was probably
awe some the realization that her basic concept of the
relationship between the body and cloth is the bases of
all clothing. Vionnet’s clothes transcended her time. (Miyake, 12)
By cutting down on distracting intricacies on the surface of her garments, Vionnet could embrace pure romanticism by allowing “emotions and human nature” complete the dress (Miyake, 13). Vionnet grounded this idea most securely in her skill of drapery hung to maximize the fluidity of women’s movement (Arnold). Then Vionnet also became famous for her extremely difficult “bias cut,” that cut the elastic in fabric to cling to a woman (Costume). Because the designs of Vionnet forced a woman to be bold and honest about her natural figure, she became a world-renowned innovator for feminine dynamism.
            When Madeliene Vionnet moved to the fashion house of Callot Soeurs in 1900, she began to experiment with what would make her uniquely significant to feminists: draping (Arnold). In this environment, Vionnet worked with real models instead of relying on her imagination translated onto paper first. Vionnet’s clothing could then be exclusive to the woman wearing it, personalizing the expression of her own body type while maximizing her comfort in the garment. Now, the priority of women designing their figures came before the etching of a molded figure onto a design sketch. Vionnet explained, “It is pity to go against nature…The best control is the natural one” (Madeleine vionnet). Vionnet was exceptional at using her drapery to give ease to pivotal points in the human figure while keeping others still from the viewer’s eye; this gave the appearance of women with healthy, carefree body types (Kirke).
            In the early 1920’s Madeleine Vionnet took her simplistic concepts a step further by keeping her silhouettes sleek while uniquely folding the surface fabrics of her skirts. In this way, the varying textures of fabrics interact and the dresses would appear to be made of many fabrics with various layers, while still accentuating the woman’s figure (Taschen). It in these designs that Vionnet’s Japanese influence and appreciation of origami came through. Symbolically, these Japanese designs that Vionnet was successful with spreading, referenced the traditional Japanese woman.
            In the turn into the 20th century, woman in Japan experienced a peak in their status. They had great patriarchal roles in society and were culturally viewed to have a balanced power to their husbands (Status). In Japan, the idea of equality far different than the Western world; the Japanese viewed equality between genders as the “balance of advantage, opportunity, and responsibility over time” (Iwao). Through the infusion of oriental techniques in her designs, Madeleine Vionnet could make this statement towards reaching equality based on achievement rather than gender. Through Vionnet, women’s clothes not only evolved with their increasing role in society, but purpose of the clothing also stated that women were willing to take the opportunities and responsibilities that men were filling.
            Vionnet was most famous for coming up with her signature cutting technique known as the “bias cut” of fabric. The bias cut is described as a cut across the grain of fabric that lays the elastic strands of fabric vertically (Figure 1). Fabric can be pulled along its yarns or strands to be stretched, but when the fabric is pulled at an exact forty-five degree angle between the intersecting strands, its bias, Vionnet discovered that the fabric will stretch even more noticeably, especially when hung vertically. After this discovery, Madeleine Vionnet continued to adjust the weight of the fabric by laying it in checkerboard patterns so that the fabric would not be distorted with gravity and the bias would elegantly ripple (Figure 2).  On the Torso, elastic strands will cling to the garment wearer, and the dress becomes form fitting, while permitting movement with the figure’s natural curves. Ultimately, this technical cut that designers today often choose not to tackle, was formfitting to a woman’s torso while the rippling in the skirt fabric played agreeably with the movement of a woman (Kirke). “When one knows one’s craft, one takes [pulls] a piece of fabric…in every possible direction,” as Vionnet explained, so that a design can be perfected and dedicated to the prevailing figure of a woman (Dorsey). 
Vionnet knew herself, her clients, and her fabrics well enough to purposefully design for the body rather than for social standards. It is logical to think of the body in its structure and anatomy when designing; however, Vionnet came to think of the body as collection “concave” and “convex” areas. With this, Vionnet made clothes that “fit well, moved well, and possessed aesthetic elegance beyond its two-dimensional form” (Kirke). Vionnet often stood quietly in the background of her shows, but she was a revolutionary with her designs that spoke of equality, honesty, and elegance, helping women gain these standings during the European feminist movement (Miyake).
            Because leading designers Chanel and Vionnet changed the way women were viewed with their daily dress, the feminist movement was catalyzed through visual representation. Like Grecian Godesses, woman could choose to wear whimsical dresses that expressed the virtue and capacity of the natural woman (Taschen). Also, the body language and body image of a woman is a major tool in getting across an honest impression and significant impact to the standard of men. Women protesting to work, vote, and join parliament in the feminist movement would not be able to follow through with their intentions wearing restrictive corset dresses. Fortunately, designers like Chanel and Vionnet recognized this incongruence and worked to help women during the movement. The aid of these two designers did not just support the movement however; it guided the everyday life of a woman to become a testament of feminine detachment from the leash of men. Women learned to move freely in their clothing as well as through the social eye while they wore clothing that fitted their own needs and not the needs of viewing males. It was Gabrielle Chanel and Madeleine Vionnet that clarified the definition of control when it came to a woman clothing her figure (Updike).
            The 19th century experienced rapid changes of the image of a woman because Gabrielle Chanel and Madeleine Vionnet were not hesitant about standing up for the equality of gender.
Through Chanel, simplistic and even menswear clothing was designed to express superior feminine beauty. The logistics of wearing comfortable clothes that accentuated a woman in a natural way finally became tangible through Chanel (Taschen).  Then through Vionnet, women could sport their sensuality without materialistic structuring, as the dresses gripped to the unique and natural structures of the body. The form of a woman was perceptible in a way that was never accepted to be publicly visible before (Kirke). Both women sought to search beyond the heavy layers of fabric that women were required to wear to find the true skin of a woman that could be exceptional in its beauty when smoothed in their designs. Clothing did not grant women direct freedoms, but its constant protuberance of protest catalyzed the revolutionary changes in the European feminist movement.



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Bland new york. (n.d.). Retrieved from      http://blendnewyork.com/fashion-dictionary/draping.htm
Capote, Truman. Coco cahnel. Portraits and Observations (pp. 220-   221). New York: Random House.
Coco chanel. (1920). American Vogue.
Costume, (1975) Costume society of england/London (vol. 9)
de la Haye, Amy. (2005). Chanel, Gabrielle (CoCo). Gale virtual       resources library. Retrieved March 12, 2011, from    http://go.galegroup.com
Dorsey, Hebe. (1973, February 02). International Herald Tribune,
Hirst, Gwendoline. (n.d.). Chanel 1883-1971. Informally   published manuscript, BA Education, Retrieved from  
       http://www.ba-education.com/for/fashion/chanel.html
Iwao, S. (1993). The japanese women: Traditional image and changing reality. New York, NY:   The Free Press.
Karbo, K. (2009). The gospel according to coco chanel. Morris Publishing Group.
Kirke, B. (1998). Madeleine Vionnet. San Francisco: Chronicle Books.
Madeleine vionnet. (1924, February 24). The New York Times.
Madsen, Axel. (1991). Chanel: a woman of her own. Holt Paperbacks.
Miyake, Issey. (1998). Foreward. Madeleine Vionnet (pp. 12-14).
Oxford dictionary. (n.d.). . Retrieved from        http://oxforddictionaries.com/?attempted=true
Picardie, Justine. (2010). Coco chanel the legend and the life.   London: HarperCollinsPublisher
"Status and Role Change Among Japanese Women” - Associated Content from Yahoo!
Taschen, Initials. (Ed.). The collection of the kyoto costume institute fashion a history from the 18th to the 20th century.
Thames and Hudson, Initials. (Ed.). (2008). The thames & hudson     dictionary of fashion and fashion designers. Singapore: CS    Graphics Pte Ltd.
Updike, John. (2007). Gabrielle "coco" chanel. In A Knopf (Ed.),      Due Considerations (pp. 465-470). New York: Random House.
Wallach , Janet. (1998). Chanel: her style and her life. Nan. A Talese.
                                              Appendix
CREATOR: gd-jpeg v1.0 (using IJG JPEG v62), quality = 100
 


Sunday, March 6, 2011

Draft 2 outline


1)   Thesis- In the early 20th century, European women of the feminist movement were gaining attention through protests for women’s rights, but the most powerful protest was the visual demonstration of women’s independence through the revolutionary clothing designs of Gabrielle Chanel and Madeleine Vionnet.

2)   By the early 20th century, women were beginning to experience civil equality, and because of the first World War, jobs were opening up for women, but it would take many alterations for women to change their status.
a)   Clothing silhouettes changed with the events of the feminist movement.
b)   Women wanted to show independence in their dress rather than their loyalty to men with clothing that fitted a man’s liking.
c)    As women anticipated amends to their role in society, their clothing would evolve with new practical silhouettes that displayed a sense of control and self reliance.

3)   The turn of the century into the early 1900’s produced a revolutionary changed in women’s clothes away from the whale-bone, constricting corset. 
a)   French designer, Gabrielle Chanel felt is was necessary for women’s clothing to be functional and youthful as women were finding more work opportunities in society (Picardie 69).
b)   Madeleine Vionnet then advanced upon these ideas by producing simplistic clothing flats that were draped around the natural shape of a woman to display an air of brevity and openness that brought about strength in women (Taschen 404).

4) There are numerous terms significant and unique to fashion that these designers were dealing with in their height of production
a) feminism- “The advocacy of women’s rights on the grounds of political, social, and economic equality to men” (Oxford).
i) Women’s fashion effects the social side of this protest for equality.
ii) the everyday look of a woman was a constant protest backing the self-rule of women.
b) Haute Couture- “The designing and making of high-quality fashionable clothes by leading fashion houses” (Oxford).
i) each of these designers eventually gained supremacy to be famous Haute Couture designers of their time.
ii) Their practical clothing became successful enough to be the new Haute Couture.
c) Stencil- Printed clothing- A technique used by Gallenga where she used a cut out pattern that was painted over and died into the fabric of her dresses.
i) this added to he renaissance designs
ii) it was unique to her and distinguishable from other designs
c)    draping-“The art of creating a dress or garment simply by arranging fabric around a body using the natural fall of the fabric and techniques like pleating, gathering” (Fashion Dictionary).
        i) Sources used
ii) essays written about designers
iii)quotes from the designers
iv)photos and paintings of the designers and their works

1)   CoCo Chanel 1883-1971- Gabrielle (CoCo) Chanel became famous in the 1920’s for sparking an evolution of the blasé, working woman in her designs.
a)   “It was she who brought zense and comfort to female clothes, shifting their control from the viewer to the wearer, from how clothes looked to men to how they felt to women” (Updike 466).
i)     Women take control of their image
ii)    Despite the standards of men
b)   Chanel was inspired by flapper minimalism and was urged to take do away with heavy weight and complexity of the clothing of the time (Updike).
i)     When women would walk into the boutique with extravagant hats and corsets, she would ask “How can the brain function in those things?” (Updike 467).
ii)    Chanel explained “Some women want to be gripped inside their clothes, never. I want women to enter my dresses and to hell with everything else” (Wallach).
c)    Janet Wallch explained after seeing Chanel’s work, “All is practical all is logical, all is done to mae a woman feel good about herself.”
i)     This is how women wished to be seen by men
ii)    The image of women is no longer overwhelmed and hidden by layers of expensive, lavish gowns of the 19th century.

2)   American Vogue considered Chanel “The Ford of Fashion” because she mastered the designing of the real woman.
a)   This phrase takes the successful man’s name and applies it to a woman.
b)   When Chanel found issues in her everyday-life that she felt applied to other women as well, she would search to resolve the issues in her clothing.
i)     During WWI, Chanel made her clothing waterproof with deep pockets and raisable cuffs so that women could still shop despite the absence of transportation.
ii)    While walking on the beaches of the Riviera, Chanel though to put straps on a cork sole and make sandals.
iii)  It was all about comfort and blithe while still looking elegant.   
c)    Chanel felt that her clothing compensated for any sensitivities and self conscious tendencies that she felt.
i)     Once when walking into a gala of wealthy people that she had to make an impression on, she explained, “my timid entrance, my awkwardness which contrasted with a wonderfully simple white dress, attracted people’s attention” (Picardie 70).
ii)    On this occasion, Chanel realized that the wealthy women in the room, who revolved around showing off their assets of wealth, were alarmed by Chanel’s unexpected appearance.
iii)  Some of Chanel’s most successful designs that progressed the position of a woman were the little black dress and the woman’s suit.
d)   The double C in the Chanel symbol came from a clash Chanel had with her boyfriend, Boy Capel; because both of their names began with C and Chanel wanted to illustrate that she was independent of him.

3)   In 1917, Gabrielle was invited to a opera with her friends, and in the disastrous event of getting dressed and accidentally exploding the gas burner in her bathroom CoCo settled for a little black dress.
a)   In the explosion, Chanel’s white dress was engulfed in soot and her hair was fried.
i)     Chanel cut her waist-length hair up to her chin and impulsively grabbed a black dress but was astonished to find incredible youth in the new look.
ii)    “With bobbed hair and a little black dress, Chanel was neither slave girl nor wife, but something of her own making” (Percardie).
iii)  Chanel claimd that everyone at the Opera was looking at her, they were impressed that “the darling of the English became the beauty of Paris” (Picardie 87).
b)   Chanel’s true love of the time, Boy Capel, died in a car accident in 1919 and Chanel continued to mourn in black.
c)    Then the black dress turned into the chicest garment of the decade and was considered a uniform as dependable as the Ford automobile in 1926 by American Vogue.
d)   Chanel perservered through the mourning of Capel “out of the past and into the future, wearing black as a symbol of strength and freedom” (Pircardie 93).
i)     Chanel was then an independent woman
ii)    Chanel: “I imposed black; it’s still going strong today, Black wipes out everything else around.”

4)   Numerous celebrities sported Chanel’s designs during and past her age; these were successful women allowing their clothing to display their self-achievements
a)   In 1963, Jackie Kennedy wore a Pink Chanel suit on a presidential visit to Dallas, Kennedy chose the pink suit and hat to radiate the simplicity and elegance that her husband especially admired.
i)     It was that day that JFK was shot and killed in the parade.
ii)    Jackie Kennedy’s suit was stained with blood and endured the tradegy of losing her husband.
iii)  On that same day, Kennedy walked with the hurse of her husband, wearing the same chanel suit that was now stained with her husband’s blood (picardie 289).
b)   Marilyn Monroe famously wore Chanel’s top selling perfume, Chanel No. 5.
c)    Elizabeth Taylor wore the quilted Chanel suit and sported the quilted Chanel handbag.
d)   All of these women were strong women in society who were able to make fortunes equal to men and who loved Chanel’s clothing for accentuating their capabilities.

5)   Madeleine Vionnet was a french designer in the 1920’s who believed that “when a woman smiles, then her dress should smile too.”
a)   Vionnet excluded any entities that took away from the natural curves of the female body in her designs.
b)   Vionnet also designed with simplistic silhouettes that were intricate in their draping and cutting to maximize fluidity along the female figure.
c)    Her clothes accentuated the movement of women and was inspired by Greek Art where clothing draped above the body and moved with its natural movement.
d)   Becuase she did not believe in mechanically molding the shape of a women’s body, Vionnet became a world renowned designer and innovator for feminine dynamism.

6)   Madeliene Vionnet movd to the fashion house of Callot Soeurs in 1900, she began to experiment with what would make her famous: draping.
a)   In the fashion house, Vionnet could work with real models rather than designing on paper.
i)     This allowed for Vionnet to design with the body and began drapping fabric along the natural curves of women.
ii)    By designing directly on a woman, Madeleine Vionnet was able to construct clothing that gave women the ability to personalize their comfort and maximize the comfort in the garments.
b)   Vionnet was later inspired by the Japanese Kimono silhouette, and gave her designs deep armholes and large sleeves for chic comfort.
i)     She used origami in folding her fabric to add dynamic interactions on the surface of her gowns.
ii)    The simplistic look of the designs covered up the complexity of the artistic folding of fabric
c)    With these techniques together, Vionnet moved away from cutting and tailoring, wrapping and draping.
i)     Maximized the flexibility of the dresses and gave women the ability to do everyday activities in the gowns.
ii)    Vionnet allowed for her designs to appear simplistic, but to be complexly decorated as to not take away from the flexibility of the cloth.
d)   In Vionnet’s clothes, women looked natural and had many liberties in their movements to compensate for their upcoming opportunities in society.

7)   Vionnet was most famous for coming up with her signature cutting technique known as the “bias cut” of fabric.
a)   The bias cut is a cut across the grain of fabric that lays the elastic strands of fabric vertically to fall onto the form of the wearer.
b)   With this, the fabric would cling to the woman and would move with her natural curves.
c)    The revolutionary cut was body-slimming to a woman’s figure.
d)   Women can show their integrity in Vionnet’s bias cut clothes because the garments are naturally hugging their figure rather than constricting and molding it to look up the standard.

9. Because leading designers Chanel and Vionnet changed the way women were viewed with their daily dress, the feminist movement was greatly catalyzed and aid with visual representation.
a. Like Grecian Godesses, woman could choose to wear whimsical dresses that expressed the virtue and capacity of the natural woman.
b. a woman protesting to work, vote, and join parliament would not be able to prove her capability while sporting a constricting corset that proved obedience to masculine standards.
c. Through Chanel, implistic and even menswear clothing was designed to express superior feminine beauty, and through Vionnet, women could sport their sensuality without materialistic structuring.
Both women sought to search beyond the heavy layers of fabric that women were required to wear to find the true beauty of a woman and to present it to the world.

10. Clothing did not grant women direct freedoms, but its constant protuberance of protest catalyzed the revolutionary changes in the European feminist movement.

Sources
Arnold, Rebecca. (n.d.). Madeleine Vionnet. Encyclopedia of clothing and fashion.
Bland new york. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://blendnewyork.com/fashion-dictionary/draping.htm
Capote, Truman. Coco cahnel. Portraits and Observations (pp. 220- 221). New York: Random House.
Karlo, K. (2009). The gospel according to coco chanel. Morris Publishing Group.
Oxford dictionary. (n.d.). . Retrieved from http://oxforddictionaries.com/?attempted=true
Picardie, Justine. (2010). Coco chanel the legend and the life. London: HarperCollinsPublisher
Tachen, Initials. (Ed.). The collection of the kyoto costume institute fashion a history from the 18th to the 20th century.
Thames and Hudson, Initials. (Ed.). (2008). The thames & hudson dictionary of fashion and fashion designers. Singapore: CS Graphics Pte Ltd.
Updike, John. (2007). Gabrielle "coco" chanel. In A Knopf (Ed.), Due Considerations (pp. 465-470). New York: Random House.




Update thesis

By the early 20th century, women were beginning to experience minute intimations of civil equality, and because of the first World War, jobs were opening up for women, but it would take countless alterations for women to fairly change their status. On the terms of equating women’s political social and economic right to men, the feminist movement illuminated in this era. One perpetual observation of the feminist movement is that women changed their clothing silhouettes correspondingly, and as a result, the fashion plunges also changed the view of a women. Women wanted their clothes to radiate independence and control without showing their subjugation from men any longer. As women took faith in their self reliance, feminine clothing would evolve with new practical trends that men could not direct. In the early 20th century, European women of the feminist movement were gaining attention through protests for women’s rights, but the most powerful protest was the visual demonstration of women’s independence through the revolutionary clothing designs of Gabrielle Chanel and Madeleine Vionnet.