Wednesday, December 15, 2010

Thesis'

The War of Spanish Succession, the Treaty of Utrecht, and the European Balance of Power


1. The treaty of Utrecth gave england opportunities to heighten it's power gave England greater access to trade; however, the greatest victor of Treaty of Utrecht was mercantilism. 

Tuesday, December 14, 2010

REVIEW

QUICK REVIEW
  • 16th century, France enters into crisis with disease and the rise of people questioning the validity of church hierarchy
  • state is a secular thing, religion and faith
  • rising merchants resented that the church ran all the political and economic activities within the state
  • capitalism did not exist
  • large families and the church ran economics
  • many reformers who were open in criticism of the church for their economic activities
  • peasantry in england,italy,  france, and germany changed positions- began to revolt against political economic and social authority
  • martin luther comes along-1483-1546- son of middle class family and became augustinian munk
  • as a monk within augustinian community-issued attack on sale of indulgences
  • he was not an outsider, he was an insider-a monk 
  • 1517-posted 95 thesis on church doors in Littenberg
  • began Protestant reformation
  • appealed to people who resented corruption of catholic clergy
  • seemed open to Luther's message
  • Nobility in Germany resented the land held by the church and the peasants saw Luther as a champion of social reform
  • outside germany, Luthers ideas also had a major impact
  • in guiding thought of john calvin
  • John Calvin was a moralist-lust must be restrained, social life must be regulated
  • ethic of calvinism was ethic of self control
  • Calvin put forth idea that overwhelming authority of human beings are damned by God's will
  • very moralists and religious theology
  • have greatest influence in n. euro
  • Geneva Switz- calvinist stronghold
  • england-reformation tied up with protestants
  • french-Hugeunots
  • Jesuits try to combat protestant heresy with missionary work
  • in Spain inquistiion enlarges its activities
  • cataloged the Index of Forbidden Books- among were Galiuleo's writings
  • adopted at the fifth lateran council of 1515 confirmed by Council of Trent
  • Index of Forbidden Books not taken down until 1966
  • smashed the midevil synthesis of chirsitain matrix where church is apart of everything
  • hope of religious unity was impossible
  • church shattered
  • rise in Folk religion and witchcraft-reaction agaisnt that
  • protestantism becomes fragmented into numerous sects
  • power of monarchs increases
  • the church becomes less of a all-encompassing universal cultural org. to a poltiical org.
  • Pope is like a king
  • 1560-1715-Europe witnessed onyl 30years of religion peace
  • major war is 30 years war
  • 1555 peace of Augsburg brought peace and fgerman princes got to choose their principality's religion
  • increased hostilities-catholics tried to allie with catholics and protestants tried to ally with protesants
  • idiological allianaces-increase of alliances in religions
  • 30 years war began in Bohemia
  • peace was shattered when Ferd. II became king of Bohemia
  • he was a zealous catholic
  • feared he would try to make Bohemia Cahtolic
  • revolt against imperial governers
  • many were throne from the windows of Prog castle
  • crown reverted to Fredrick V
  • extended war to all of Holy Roman Empire
  • cath.-ferdII Prot-FredV- battle from 1618-1620
  • ferdnand used jesuits to try to recathlicise
  • clear victory for catholics, and spanish hapsburgs untervened in protestant states, Cathlic league continued to win battles
  • king of Denmark joined protestants in 1635-more interested in gaining land then helping military
  • Wallentein repelled Danes
  • even Wallenstein with great cahtolic army fell into trap of wanting personal power
  • denmark withdew from 30 eyars war and ferdinand issued Edict of restitituiotn
  • all land and property given back to the catholics
  • 1630-Gustavos adolphus entered the 30 years war
  • protestant-aimed to make a federation of german protestant states
  • won a crucial victory in Saxony
  • amrched against wallenstien
  • in Lutzen
  • Wallenstein killed in the battle
  • swedes win but Gustavos dies in battle
  • swedes have to leave
  • but france sees its opportunity
  • Cardinal Richelieu-decided to accept any allies regardless of their relgion to go agaisnt spain
  • allied with germany and sweden in war against spain
  • spanish hapsburgs defeated by France
  • peace negotiations-peace of Westphalia
  • fragmetnation og HRE
  • switz and Neth become independent
  • France gets Alsas
  • peace of Augsburg and allowed calvinism as a recognized faith
  • war destroyed most of Europe-equivalent to WWII
  • HRE lost quarter of inhabitants
  • 1562-1598 numerous civil wars
  • ex. calvinists grew in numbers and attractive nobility 
  • 1559 Hugeunots constructed a 
  • Guise-ties both to henry and spanish crown
  • Hugeunots appealed for better treatment 1562-war broke out between protestants and catholics
  • attempt to reconcil with marraige of Henry Navarre and Margaret of Valois
  • but it failed
  • catherine de medicci urged catholics to attack the wedding
  • St., Batholomew's day massacre
  • Henry Navarre became Henry IV but only after he convereted to catholocism
  • 1598-Edict of Nantes-liberty ot protestants in france
  • successors of Henry tried to weaken the Edict
  • meanwhile, between Netherland and Spain-1560's Dutch revolted against phillip II of Spain
  • understood commercial greatness of Dutch
  • influence of protestant lead to revolt where Phillip was the loser
  • Dutch incredibly powerful 
  • taxes raised and regments made for armies
  • 1575-protestants under Dutch Leader WIlliam of Orange fought against tyranny of Phillip
  • same time-Scots rebel agaisnt Mary Queen of Scots who is Catholic
  • armada against english
  • terrible failure for spanish
  • defeat and nar complete destruction of armada spelled end for nay complete dominance of Spain
  • England-rise of Stuarts-behead charles in 1649 and cromwell takes over
  • 1570-1516-french becomes dominant power
  • rise of Louis XIV-role of absolute monarch perfected
  • appointed by devine right-lived above the laws
  • econoimcis- defined by mercantilism
  • spanish imports 18,000 tons of silver from new world back to spain
  • caused spanish economy to crash
  • new world exploration for gold increased amount in euro by 20 percent
  • new class-Bourgeoisie-"men of the towns"
  • upper middle class-business people
  • made money in banking and business
  • especially seen in netherlands
  • exploration-goal was to find northwest passage-passage through canada to get to China
  • english establish settlements in plymouth and roenoke
  • catholic colony coming in Maryland
  • first college founded -Harvard in 1636
  • scientific revolution
  • produced many of the great scientific 
  • Capernicus, Bruno, Kepler, Tycho Brahe, Galileo, Robert Hooke, Robert Boyle, Edmond Hailee, Isaac Newton-LOOK UP FOR MIDTERM
  • philosophers- Descartes, John Locke, Francis Bacon, thomas Hobbes, leibiez, spinoza-LOOK UP FOR MIDTERM
  • Witchcraft-1660-lengthy treadition of witchcraft in europe
  • religious preacticies, medicinal parctiices
  • coutnry folk
  • while witches in general were suspicious, they carried on for a long time by themselves
  • could trace all the way back through pagon practices in europe
  • europeans lived with it
  • changed in 17th century-intense heat brought about by religious wars
  • 2 tyupes of witchraft
  • one had to do wtih healing and fortune-telling
  • also witchcraft of demonology-people considered witches who were brigning up and conversing with evil spirits
  • not all witches who did one also practiced the other type
  • many kinds of witches-still are
  • church entered into a bond with satin and thye were working against God and the church
  • church claimed that witches held secret meetings
  • tried to persecute witches for heresy
  • by 17th century-relgiious wars waged on and persecution for heresy became feasrs
  • church spread many fears about the witches claiming that it was apart of a diabolical plot to overthrow the church
  • withces were small organizations
  • book- Malleus maleficarum the Witch Hammer- a book on how to written by two dominican firerers
  • writers-Heinrich Cramer and James Springer
  • By 16th century-church went out of its way to make a relation between women and witchcraft
  • # of accusations agaisnt women outweighed accustaions agaisnt men 3:1
  • 1650-ish---as many as 15,000 people tried for witchcraft
  • at least 10,000 executed by being burned at the stake
  • women were the quote "weaker vessel"
  • women were weaker and therefore more vulnerable to temptation
  • practice of witchcraft turns into women working for satin who must be killed
  • Burning Times/ witchcraft craze began to die down
  • because reformation triggerede intellecual bakclash where people 
  • great backlash against religious fanatiscism
  • against wars in europe
  • produced an atmosphere that implied there was reason to figuring out the world
  • fanatiscims that ended in war did not fit into people civilized minds
  • leads into the ENLIGHTENMENT
  • in enlightenment-goal was to bring faith itno accordance with reason
  • by around 1700, elites in nobility had hired astronologers 





Thursday, December 9, 2010

Dutch Republic Free Response

                 The Dutch Republic began its ascent to secular success  in the midst of European religious and    political conflict in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The northern provinces of the Netherlands began this  progression with the signing of the Union of Utrecht in 1579, where they promised protect each other from the forces of Catholic king Phillip II of Spain. From then, the revolts in the Netherlands began to settle, and independence emerged in the Dutch Republic. The provinces opted to be civil but established political, religious, and economic independence from each other and the rest if Europe. This proved success until the decline of the Dutch Republic in the eighteenth century. The Dutch Republic's method of sustaining a nation through secularism and independence of provinces was successful, but these methods of success truly contributed to the country's decline; namely, the ultimate lack of nationalism kept the Dutch Republic from maintaining strength against the powers of monarchy and absolutism seen in England and France at the time. 
       In the seventeenth century, nations in Europe were run by a royal family determined the government and clerical status for its populates; the Dutch republic differed.  The Dutch Republic was made up of seven provinces that were run independently of each other, and each with its own stadholder. Each executive of the provinces generally sided with the loose national stadholder, the head of the House of Orange. Until 1795, the independent provinces of the republic sustained their power and protected their citizens through self-sufficiently run court systems. The Dutch Reformed Church was Calvinist, but the provinces accepted the practice of all religions and allowed for the living of a  secular lifestyle. Because of this, many surrounding minorities fled to the republics. The Dutch merchant class ran the regions, and in the period of the Golden Age, the Republic became the worldwide center of banking and shipping. Dutch gold became the international monetary exchange and the provinces created canals and windmill power to enhance their shipping. The fresh style of living that set the Dutch Republic apart from current countries of Europe in the seventeenth century brought enhancements to the success and power of the provinces.
        Success emerged from the lifestyle differences presented by the Dutch republic in the Golden Age of the Netherlands. The independence of the stadholders of each provinces gave flexibility and apparent ease to the stability of the provinces. This mechanism was successful because in the time of military threats, the provinces could condense, but in time of relative peace the provinces could disperse back to their middle class leisures. In the period of the Dutch Republic's Golden Age (c. 1600-1650), religious unrest was occurring in other nearby countries of Europe (1559-1648). These conflicts between ruling Catholic and Protestant powers caused for the displacement and mistreatment of many minority religious groups; hence, the reason why the Dutch Republic had inflated immigration rates. The religious freedom of the Dutch Republic made it a popular place to move to, and its pleasant living styles were admired as well. The large, powerful class of merchant men exceeded the merchant classes in other areas of Europe, and the success of Dutch trade came to dominate Europe in the early seventeenth century. Amsterdam likewise became the worldwide center of trade and banking. The Dutch Republic went on to dominate the oceans with their approximate 10,000 ships and were successful in utilizing Africa for its slaves and land; however, the pleasant living in the Dutch Republic was too inviting for populates to emigrate and establish a colonial empire. The success of the secular and loosely tied provinces of the Netherlands lasted strongly for half of a century.
         In 1651, the Dutch Republic faced its first wind of suppression from competing English forces. Growing mercantilism damaged the Dutch commerce and during the Cromwell era, the Navigation Acts of England were passed so that each import into Europe had to come through English Vessels. Dutch shipping declined because of this, and the Dutch went to war in the Anglo-Dutch wars against England because of this as well. The intensity of power from Louis XIV's absolutism  also drained the Dutch Republic in this time period. Furthermore, the Dutch Republic preserved its existence in alliance with England until the eighteenth century, but the Republic declined against the matchless growing power of England. The strength of the nation was short-lived because of its disperse of powers into smaller fragmented provinces.  France had the reigning of absolutism with Louis the XIV that set up a cushion for damage and rebound, such as with the revoking of the Edict of Nantes. England  tried running as a republic with Cromwell; however, that was short lived by the nation and called for such restoration of monarchy in England that the period after Cromwell's death was also called the Restoration. With the severity of religious and political conflict in seventeenth century Europe, a nation lacking an interconnected, central power of politics and religion  will not be able to hold up against other solid world powers for extended amounts of time.
       The Golden Age of the Netherlands was marked by pleasant standards of living  and freedom of provincial independence, but the era only lasted for 50 years; whereas, the reign of absolute monarchies lasted for centuries in European history. The Dutch Republic was powerful for its time because it was new and secular; it served as a refugee for those minorities singled out by the European religious wars. It was in the right situation at the appropriate period of time, but as religious conflicts settled in Europe and rising powers of France and England enhanced their dominance, the independence of the Dutch provinces was no longer beneficial. With the Republic's success, there came a decline, and that decline overshadows the accomplishments of the Golden Age. In the end, the Dutch accomplishments did not prove to be helpful in conserving the cohesiveness of a republic. The Dutch Republic gained independence in the Union of Utrecht, but the dispersal of its freedoms and choices spread far enough away from the core of the nation so that defense against absolute powers would be affectively retained.  

Final Draft Free Response 1


Galileo was a revolutionary scientist of the seventeenth century who was considered a father of the scientific revolution. His work with astronomy, physics, and methodology are still used today and opened many pathways for future scientists beyond Galileo; even though, much of his work was not readily accepted by the Europeans of his era. Previous to Galileo was Nicholas Copernicus' who inspired Galileo's defense  of Heliocentric science against the church. Galileo's contemporary, Johannes Kepler, also exceeded the boundaries of European knowledge in astronomy and worked along with Galileo on the budding telescope. Galileo went through numerous court hearings for the radical character of his astronomical ideas that were contradictory to the biblical beliefs of the Catholic Church in the seventeenth century. These ideas found with Galileo's improvement of the telescope proved unavoidable realities on the universal existence that were being unfurled by many scientists of the time period. Numerous contemporaries to Galileo were coming up with similar innovations because of the new tools at their reach.  Such scientific ideals as Galileos' are considered superlative by many of today's scientists because the notions sparked an inducement of scientific truths into Europeans societies. Galileo's ideologies supporting heliocentric science were contradictory to the geocentric theologies of the church in the seventeenth century; but truthfully,  his revolutionary ideas diminish in innovation in that  it was due time for such concepts to be determined in Galileo's era of scientific development .

Along with a few other European scientists, Galileo was apart of the scientific revolution, where there was a great improvement in physics, astronomy, mechanics, methodology, etc. Galileo, namely, was noted for his inventive ideas in astronomy, physics, and methodology. In 1609, Galileo produced an improvement of the telescope after hearing of its invention in Holland. With this telescope, Galileo observed the four phases of a moon of Venus, he better explained the surface of the moon, that the milky way is a cluster of starts, and many other astronomical advances that had not been justified. Astronomically, Galileo also proved that the solar system was not geocentric; the sun was the center of the solar system. This is stated in his Copernican Theory. The Copernican Theory was based off of the ideologies of Nicholas Copernicus who believed that the sun may be the center of the universe in the 14th century. Therefore, the idea of the heliocentricism was seemingly magnificent news to the church of the seventeenth century; however, it had been an unpublished idea for three centuries. The telescope, such as the one that Galileo constructed, was the tool to prove Copernicus' idea, and Galileo was the first to do so. It is true that the sun is the center of the universe, and it was Galileo Galilee and his telescope that formulated the proof of heliocentric science in the midst of the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century.

From the time of Galileo's existence to today, scientists have been working to prove scientific ideas that often have a connection to Galileo's findings. Galileo came up with the a better telescope to observe the moon, and today people walk on the moon. Also, through the discovery of the sun as the center of the solar system, people have further represented the celestial characteristics of each planet. Galileo's ideas have expanded into the thoughts of many proceeding scientists, but unlike today, the public of the seventeenth century confronted science based on the knowledge of the church. Therefore, when Galileo came up with new ideas that disproved the church and bible stories, the proven realities of Europe were not readily accepted. In Galileo's Copernican theory, he solidified that the sun was the center of the universe. This went against the church's theology and condemned Galileo with Heresy. These astronomical ideas that Galileo did not give up on granted Galileo lifelong house arrest. It was here, however, that Galileo formulated new ideas to get published for the public, even though Galileo was forbidden from the church. Galileo's ideas demonstrated the reality that the public was not believing. Europeans of the seventeenth century were strictly bound to the church and were not relatively knowledgeable of spacial realities in relation to biblical teachings. With this, Galileo's proven ideas shaped a new reality that seemed advanced because the ideas of the public were theologies preached by the clergy. It was through numerous court confrontations that Galileo had to withstand to prove the severity of his confidence in his ideologies.

Galileo's ideas concerning Heliocentric science and the improvements on the telescope were radical to the public, but to the fathers of the scientific revolution, they were previously formulated ideas. Nicholas Copernicus began the Scientific Revolution with the publication of the text On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres just before his death. This text was the spark of the revolution that included a heliocentric model that theorized the independence of earth from other celestial occurrences. In this formulation, Copernicus wrote that the earth is one of many planets that individually rotates around the sun in one year and turns on its axis in one day. The sun is a fixed entity approximately in the center of the universe, celestial entities travel in circular pathways, there are three motions to the earth and the other planets, and earth is relatively close to the sun in relation to stars and other planets. Here, all ideas of heliocentric science had been structured for Galileo, and Galileo was the man who defended the Copernican theory in front of the Roman Church almost a century later. Galileo defined heliocentricism, but he did not originate the ideas as Copernicus had many formulated before him. Also a contemporary of Galileo was Johannes Kepler who was a noted astrologer of the seventeenth century. Kepler crafted his rendition of the refracting telescope that was an improvement of Galileo's previous design. Galileo's telescope helped to define the surface of the moon and the shape planets in his defense of the Copernican theory; however, Kepler's design allowed for a wider field of view with the convergence of light rays. Through this telescope, Kepler could view objects at a much greater magnification with a clear measurement of the distance between spacial objects. The telescope was first introduced in the Netherlands in 1608, the Galilean telescope was developed in 1609, but Kepler's design evolved two years later with numerous advancements. Kepler's design was used for another century before another notable improvement was published. Galileo's ideas in astronomy were postulated by former scientists and some were reproved by his contemporaries.


Galileo founded numerous theories and inventions in the scientific revolution; however, his ideas compete equally with his contemporaries. In the seventeenth century, when the scientific revolution began, the spark of scientific innovations unfolded the truth of space. Galileo's ideas in this era note him as being a father of the revolution; however, specifically his works with astronomy, where made with the accompaniment of former astronomers or were improved by his contemporaries. The ideas got Galileo into much trouble in his time, they laid out the reality of space, and they helped future scientists to create ideas. To scientists of the same era, though, the ideas were on the verge of pervious publication. Seventeenth century Europe was educated on scientific ideas that were not all justified until the scientific revolution that Galileo took part in. Galileo was able inform his generation about heliocentric science and he illustrated new celestial objects with his telescope, but Copernicus and Kepler were making similar notions at earlier times and in more complex fashions. 

Tuesday, December 7, 2010

Peer Review

Essay's graded on scale 1-9
8-9- has clear well developed thesis, supported with considerable relevant historical info
5-7-essay has partially developed thesis with some relevant information
0-1-essay lacks thesis and does not show understanding of question

Monday, December 6, 2010

Free Response Question #1

"Why are the trials and tribulations of Galileo often considered both predicative of the future of Western Civilization as well as a perfect encapsulation of the context of his own time?"


Galileo was a revolutionary scientist of the seventeenth century who was considered a father of the scientific revolution. His work with astronomy, physics, and methodology are still used today and opened many pathways for future scientists beyond Galileo; even though, much of Galileo's work was not readily accepted by the Europeans of his era. Galileo began his work as a professor of mathematics at the Perdua University in Italy. Here, he taught many students his ideas on physics and mechanics; however, it was also here that Galileo came up with many ideas for later scientific publications. Within his time, Galileo came up with advancements in astronomy, physics, and methodology that were beyond the knowledge of his fellow Europeans, but these ideas have served contemporary scientists with foundations for advancement.


Along with a few other European scientists, Galileo was apart of the scientific revolution, where there was a great improvement in physics, astronomy, mechanics, methodology, etc. Galileo, namely, was noted for his inventive ideas in astronomy, physics, and methodology. In 1609, Galileo produced an improvement of the telescope after hearing of its invention in Holland. With this telescope, Galileo observed the four phases of a moon of Venus, he better explained the surface of the moon, that the milky way is a cluster of starts, and many other astronomical advances that had not been justified. Astronomically, Galileo also proved that the solar system was not geocentric; the sun was the center of the solar system. This is stated in his Copernican Theory. With physics, Galileo disproved Aristotle with this laws of uniform acceleration. Galileo thought up the idea and taught to his students that the velocity of a falling object is independent of its mass; therefore, two objects falling at once will fall at the same rate despite the difference in their masses. With methodology, Galileo bettered the reasoning for experimentation. Galileo saw that the explanation of a phenomenon could be found if the phenomena was broken down into its most basic means. Many situations, Galileo presented, could be understood if they were dissected and analyzed by their individual axioms. Of the many original and improved ideas that Galileo thought of, these were a few that were most notable in his success. 


From the time of Galileo's death to today, scientists have been working to prove scientific ideas that often have a connection to Galileo's findings. Galileo came up with the a better telescope to observe the moon, and today people walk on the moon. Also, through the discovery of the sun as the center of the solar system, people have further represented the characteristics about each planet such as their orbit, gravitational pull, length of days, etc. With physics, people throughout history such as Einstein have came up with their laws of motion based on the masses and acceleration of objects. Einstein was around long after Galileo; however, their similar subject matter illustrated the advanced level of thinking that Galileo possessed. Many biologists and chemists today have used Galileo's methodology to get a better understanding of experiments. For example, with the muscles of the body, biologists have been able to better comprehend their movement by breaking down the motion into the basic-most means. On the contrary, scientists such as Descartes who came after Galileo disagreed with Galileo's methodology. Descartes found that the point of experimentation had strict purpose rather than to analyze a theory. In varying amounts of ways, Galileo's ideas have expanded into the thoughts of many proceeding scientists.


In the seventeenth century, the public confronted science based on personal assumptions or the assumptions of the church. Therefore, when Galileo came up with new ideas that often disproved the church, the proven reality of Europe was not readily accepted. In Galileo's Copernican theory, he solidified that the sun was the center of the universe. This went radically against the church and put Galileo up for Heresy. These astronomical ideas that Galileo did give up granted Galileo lifelong house arrest. It was here, however, that Galileo wrote texts that explained his ideas in physics and methodology to get published for the public, even though Galileo was forbidden from the church. Aristotle had presented the idea that objects fall in direct proportion to their weight and it had been from then on assumed as true. When Galileo disproved this, it was not until later that the ideas were published, but Galileo's ideas proved the reality that the public was not believing. Europeans of the seventeenth century were strictly bound to the church and were not relatively knowledgeable. With this, Galileo's proven ideas shaped a new reality that seemed advanced because the ideas of the public were assumed theories that were handed down into their knowledge.


Overall, Galileo founded numerous theories and inventions in the midst of the scientific revolution. Even though the ideas got Galileo into much trouble in his time, they laid out the reality of space and helped future scientists to create ideas. Galileo's ideas were an advancement of others or an origination of his own. Therefore, later scientists were given the opportunity to advance on Galileo's works as well. Because of this, many new experiments have been proven and science is an endless subject of proven and unproven ideas. Seventeenth century Europe was educated on scientific ideas that were not all justified until the scientific revolution that Galileo took such a large part in. In his work with astronomy, physics, and methodology, Galileo was able to map out Europe for his generation and he was able to lay down a path for the future generations of people to come. 

Friday, December 3, 2010

France 1580-1715

1598- Henry IV King of France issues Edict of Nantes-grants religious toleration to French Huguenots
Henry IV is established as a politique for this

French Tax System
big problem in this time period because the nobility was exempt from paying taxes

Sully- Henry IV appoints the duck of Sully
middle class man- cannot completely fix the tax situation but makes it sufficient
people can see their taxes of towards something in the city

Nobility of the Robe- 


1610- Henry IV is assassinated
from the family of the House of Bourbon
Great family of France

Henry's son will become king but he is only 9 years old
Louis XIII
1624- Cardenal Richelieu takes charge as regent
1624-1642- Richelieu is the real ruler of France--wants to strengthen royal power in France-Politique--put politics ahead of religion
Richelieu wanted to knock down the up and coming nobles--divides up France into 32 segments
each segment was given intendants that ruled for Richelieu
intendants were middle class so that they were more loyal to Richelieu
Richelieu wanted to get the Hapsburg to lose power and supports Protestants in the 30 years war so that the Hapsburg does not get anymore power
Luois XIII and Richelieu dies 1643 and 1644 respectively


Louis XIII has a son Louis XIV
known as the sun king
most dominant figures in French history
his chief minister Jules Mazarin-also a cardinal
as the new king was crowned rebellions came out-les frondes
point of rebellion was to limit the power of the king
caused Luois XIV to leave Paris
says "Je suis l'etat"- absolutism "'etat c'est moi"
builds palace of Versaille to get out of Paris

Bishop Bossuet- theorized the divine right of kings
the principle architect of the idea of absolutism in the 17th century
Louis XIV liked him very much

absolutism
Louis XIV was the first and greatest absolutism
power of intendants goes up and nobility has to owe legions to the king
nobility has no job unless

Versailles
describes Louis

Jean-Baptiste Colbert
appointed by Louis XIV to be minister of finance
Colbert who instituted the practice of Mercantilism
gov. control of all aspects of the economy
French also has major colony in America- Quebec
Colbert who encourages the fur trade in Canada-perfect way to use a colonies to enhance the mother country

1685- france has population of 19 million
1 million are huguenots
louis XIV revokes edict of nantes because he does not need them anymore
all protestant churches are closed and protestants forced to become catholic
problem: french working class is heavy huguenot
when it was revokes voer 200,000 working class left to other countries
diminishes France's industrial copacity

sets out on a series of wars
Wars of Louis XIV
in this time, France was the most populated nation
France had become most powerful after 30 years war
reasons for wars:
1.wanted france to expand its borders
2. wanted to make France a global power by inheriting the Spanish holdings

Thursday, December 2, 2010

Galileo

  • born: near Pisa 1564
  • professor of mathematics in Pisa
  • professor of mathematics at University of Padua
  • here he experimented on the speed at which objects fall, mechanics, and pendulums
  • 1609-heard about the discovery of the telescope in Holland
  • built a better one that lead to the discovery of 
    • mountains and valleys on the moon, sunspots, the four largest moons of the planet Jupiter, and the phases of Venus
  • 1614-came up with the Copernican Theory-the sun is the center of the solar system
    • accused of heresy (against the church)
    • people believed that earth was the center of the solar system so this was revolutionary
  • 1616-forbidden by the church
  • 1632- proposed his book the "Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems"
    • set of arguments published that were for and against the Capernican Theory
    • accused of heresy and was sentences to life imprisonment but that was reduced to permanent house arrest
    • forced to publicly withdraw his support for the theory
  • continued to write
  • 1638- "Discourses Concerning Two New Sciences" was published
    • presented laws of motion and principals of mechanics
  • died in 1642

Effect on Europe
  • his experimental method
  • believed that purpose of experimentation was not to get information but to test a theory and the success of a test method
  • phenomena should be analyzed mechanically 
  • every phenomenon is a result of a combination of basic phenomena and universal axioms
  • if proven theorems are applied to a larger phenomenon, it can be explained why a phenomenon occurs in the way it does
  • answer to a scientific phenomenon can in other words be found by reducing it to the simplest terms on the basis of matter and motion
  • only the most basic events occur because of one axiom
  • this influences many scientists to come such as 
    • Descartes who analyzed Galileo's methods and experiments to come up with a counterargument
  • Galileo's method also helped chemists and biologists to explain the motions of the body on the basis of matter, motion, energy, and basic principals

  • for most people of the 17th century Galileo was like a hero to them
  • hero of modern science
  • Galileo discovered many things: 
    • with his telescope, he first saw the moons of Jupiter and the mountains on the Moon; 
    • he determined the parabolic path of projectiles and calculated the law of free fall on the basis of experiment.
    • He is known for defending and making popular the Copernican system,
    •  using the telescope to examine the heavens,
    •  inventing the microscope, dropping stones from towers and masts,
    •  playing with pendula and clocks,
    •  being the first ‘real’ experimental scientist,
    •  advocating the relativity of motion, and creating a mathematical physics.
    •  His major claim to fame probably comes from his trial by the Catholic Inquisition and his purported role as heroic rational, modern man in the subsequent history of the ‘warfare’ between science and religion
    • http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/galileo/
  • began the scientific revolution
  • Galileo's work into three or four parts: 
    • (1) his physics, 
    • (2) his astronomy, and 
    • (3) his methodology, which could include his method of Biblical interpretation and his thoughts about the nature of proof or demonstration. In this tradition, typical treatments dealt with his physical and astronomical discoveries and their background and/or who were Galileo's predecessors
  • the church forbade his work becuase it went against the scientific assumptions of the people