Thursday, October 28, 2010

Machiavelli THE PRINCE

1. Which of the following would be most successful in business today? And what kind of business would they run (Internet startup, chain store, international conglomerate, NGO, mafia)? Remirro da Orca (chapter 7), Oliverotto da Fermo (chapter 8) Cesare Borgia.



In the vast variety of businesses today, a formulated man should aspire  to run each one using examples of the three following characters from The Prince by Machiavelli:   Remirro de Orca, who is the  best example for  a government business; Oliverotto da Fermo, who is the best example for an art or design business;  and Cesare Borgia, who is the best example for a family run, ecclesiastical business. Each of these noblemen was brought up by Machiavelli for his strengths, and each one was sorted out by his own weaknesses or findings.  Remirro de Orco was appointed power over the disordered region of Romagna after Duke Valentino of Milan acquired it. The unifier chosen by the Duke was Remirro de Orca. Eventhough he was considered a “cruel and resolute individual,” De Orca was able to bring Romagna back to a state of peace in a short amount of time (Machiavelli 36). For this, Remirro gained respect. In government type businesses, such as the armed forces and serious top secret affairs. As Remirro proved, a  leader must be stern and cruel, but he must be able to pull everything together in an organized fashion. After all, a government business leader must be respected as Remirro was. Oliverotto da Fermo, on the other hand, was an orphan and a soldier who gained power from the lower classes. Fermo had little fortune and was not considered a virtuoso, but he was able to use his vigor and cleverness to make it to chief officer in the Italian military and he used his determination to seize the city himself. With this idea of having a clever and creative mind that could raise Fermo to the top, he would be successful in a creative, design type business. Here, Oliverotto da Fermo was able to  use structure, his great determination, and his cleverness in creating a material, an object, or a principle that was made vigorously. The last man Cesare Borgia was of great fortune, and he rose into power over Romagna because his father was the powerful Pope Alexander VI. Cesare had fortune and support from his father and from the Catholic Church, but unfortunately, after the death of his father, Cesare’s powerful position was overruled within a few months. Cesare would need to work in a business that was family run, and especially one that would include a religious factor. Casare became a Cardinal in the church and was successful with the help of his family connections. Remirro da Orca, Oliverotto da Fermo, and Cesare Borgia have unique attributes that contribute to their reputation and history today, and both the adequate and poor characteristics that they have could fit them into businesses in the present.


2. Who is a prince's greatest ally? (Chapters 9, 19, 20, 21)

   


Whether it comes with acquiring the position or maintaining the principality, a prince will endure hardships; therefore, it is vital that a prince comprehends whom to become allies with, how to keep them, and when allies are most needed. A prince will never be able to escape being disliked by a party of subjects in the populace and a prince must be careful in choosing allies that might dominate over his absolute power. It is said to be dependable to befriend the common people in a population, because these citizens will not seek an equilibrium or sense of equal playing field with the prince. With the nobles, however, they can be important allies with their powers, but only as long as a prince does not seek noble allies that do not depend on his powers. These nobles will seek equality and even conspiracy to extract power from the prince for themselves.  A prince must accumulate healthy allies and must also learn how to satisfy his allies to solidify them as loyal. Being mindful of conspiracies, it would be smart of a prince to not rob his subjects of their deserved power and especially of their women. Also, a prince may want to rely on a fortress; however, such a safeguard will provide useless aid unless the Prince realizes the voice of his engulfed people. There is strategy to choosing an ally when it has not already been specified for whom a prince should definitely entrust. When a campaign takes place, it is first essential that a prince chooses sides.  Neutrality will only solve topical perils and will eventually lead to the loss of benevolence from both sides of the campaign. Ultimately, "in order to avoid immediate peril, an irresolute prince most often embraces neutrality and most often comes to grief" (Machiavelli 85). In this situation, it is advised that a prince chooses the stronger side. If the strong side wins then the Prince will have additional power and safety; if the strong side loses, then the prince will still have guardianship as the strong power fights to get back what it lost. There is much complexity that goes into acquiring allies, but there are also many benefits in receiving allies to hold up the principality; as long as the prince can maintain dominance over them.
3. According to Machiavelli, when is generosity a good thing? (Be specific, identify, and cite his argument).



In gaining power, a prince should be assertive and confident and he should equally understand that a careful amount of generosity can win the loyalty of his subjects, strengthen an army, and enhance the benefits of his ruling. With obtaining loyalty, a prince must give back the appreciation that he receives from his allies. He must keep the friendship of his common people for his own absolute power, and he must honor his nobles who choose to be dependent on him and can be trusted not to create conspiracies. When subjects expect spite or arrogance from a prince, yet receive his generosity and trustworthiness, they will feel obligated to be loyal to him. Machiavelli stated that "only those methods of defense which depend upon one's own resourcefulness are good, certain, and enduring" (Machiavelli 91).  Machiavelli wants one to understand that overall peace will sustain a principality and the strength in warfare will allow this to be achieved. Providing troops with generosity of weaponry and defensive intelligence is suggested to inspire the subjects indulging in war. Also, being intelligent as a prince in providing for the troops will enhance his dominance and loyalty. One of Machiavelli's famous arguments is whether a prince should rather be loved or feared. He decides that every prince should wish to be "kind rather than cruel. Nevertheless, he must take care to avoid misusing his kindness" (65). Compassion and generosity are vital for a prince to have in order to gain appreciation from his people. A prince must be careful; however, because if he shows too much compassion for his subjects, then the deserved punishment will not be given and a chain of disorder will begin. Too much cruelty and punishment will not be accepted by a population either, and it is fear and love that a prince attains full dominance. In this equilibrium of fear and love, generosity is a clear, quintessential component that a prince must practice.

4. Use The Beatitudes to argue against Machiavelli.



In The Prince,  Machiavelli aspires for an overall rule of dominance and tyranny, and this can offend the Catholic religion and morals in its characterization of a prince's values; one of these such entities that may be offended is “The Beatitudes”.  “The Beatitudes “are a significant list of eight statements used by Jesus to bless a poor or unfortunate category of people so that they are considered fortunate. Machiavell,i on the other hand, positioned his ideal prince among the stronger parties, where he would only immorally use the lower class for their dependence on him and to solidify his power. A moral of The Beatitudes contradicted by Machiavelli is "Blessed are the meek; for they shall posses the land" ( St. Mathew ). The meek would be considered the humble and overly compliant common people in which a prince could take advantage of to sustain his position. Also, a prince who has been brought up by the church is suggested by Machiavelli, because then he does not have to undergo much difficulty maintaining his power since the church will do much of the neutralizing and congealing of the principality. Machiavelli explains it when he states, "Ecclesiastical princes alone can hold states without defending them, and subjects without governing them" (Machiavelli 49). Therefore, in a prince’s attempt to match the ability of previous rulers, he must know that fortune and ability can get himself a facile term through the Catholic church. This, likewise, goes against the Beatitude explaining that the merciful or compassionate should obtain  appreciation and mercy themselves. In this Ecclesiastical ruling, the church is putting forth compassion for the principality, yet the prince gets credibility for a successful rule. Another significant Beatitude is the one stating "Blessed are the peacemakers: for they shall be called the children of God" ( St. Mathew ).  Principalities should reach a state of peace that is longed to be maintained through military warfare. A prince, therefore, would be considered the peacemaker who assesses the attitudes of his people. Ceasar Borgia, exemplifies this in that he "was considered cruel; yet his cruelty was restored Romagna, uniting it in peace and faith" (65). Borgia is a peacemaker through his use of understood cruelty, but his ultimate bringing of peace does not uplift those who seek peace in the lower classes. Machiavelli asks for many of the morals that are in the Beatitudes; however, these morals are asked for by and given to the prince; ultimately so that he can gain more power.

5. Use Machiavelli to argue against The Beatitudes.



Rather than the generously uplifting the lower classes as guided by the Catholic Beatitudes, Machiavelli advises for Princes to indirectly act to empower themselves. This can be done in a helpful manner, however, because a principalities well being is achieved through the people's devotion to the prince. In the time of Machiavelli and the Medici rule in Florence, the poor classes targeted by the Beatitudes would not have been educated enough to intelligently make political decisions. Therefore, a prince must "learn other than good, making use of this capacity or refraining from it according to need" (Machiavelli 62). Some princes can be generous, while others are covetuous; some are cruel, while others are understanding; but princes must choose their condition of ruling based on feedback that they receive which is either of praise or condemnation. Therefore, in their choice of generosity or need, it is suggested that Princes choose richer, more intelligent noblemen to share the truth with so that he can rightfully respond intelligently to the feedback. This is not helping the lower class, but choosing whom to give attention to heighten the prestige of a prince's rule. In “The Beatitudes” this relinquishes the clean at heart, because it is fortune rather than purity that will contribute to the upbringing of a successful principality (St. Mathew).  A prince should make sure to avoid obsequiousness, where subjects front the truth to pay the Prince his deserved loyalty. To get around this, a prince must leave the less intellectually opinionated to pay their due respect, and must choose the nobles for the truth before a prince proceeds to do what he wishes. Again, in “The Beatitudes” this out rules the meek subjects because their compliance is used to sustain a prince's royalty and  principalities of unity without having to devote value to these compliments (St. Mathew). A prince must be careful in choosing his allies and entrusted figures. A prince cannot choose a party more powerful than himself; however, he cannot choose one that will not be able to fight its way in a campaign. Therefore, a prince must remember to ask for mercy rather than becoming a prisoner of mercy to a more dominant subject. The merciful is intended to obtain mercy, but a prince must maintain order in his principality. His trust can go into others, but all mercy should ultimately come back to the prince (St. Mathew). “The Beatitudes” are a significant article that extracts morality from people to care for others; however, it can be aimed  towards the lower classes.  The prince, ultimately, must first focus on grasping his principality before he worries about giving power and material goods to the classes beneath him.
Works Cited
Machiavelli, N. (1532). The Prince.
St Mathew, Initials. (n.d.). The Eight Beatitudes. Retrieved from        http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02371a.html.

review

  • England ruled by one monarch-Italian cite states were ruled by wealthy merchant families
  • Quatrocentto- name that some historians used for fifteenth century Italy
    • Medici family coming to power-Giovanni, Cosimo, Lorenzo-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Medici_family
    • Artists- Giotto-scenic murals; Donatello-sculpture in bronze, stone, wood; Brunelleschi- engineer of the dome of florence cathedral, invented perspective in painting; Leonardo Da Vinci, Bonachelli-artist who mrimarilly worked with pegan myths up until the bonfire of the vanities; Michael Angelo-goes against Lorenzo in as an adult, on the ceiling of the Systine chapel; and Raphael 
    • artwork celebrates the individual with their own look and personality is expressed in art of the renaissance
    • in England there are feudal societies and fatalism
    • in Italy there is no fatalism
    • Oration on the Dignity of Man-most influential writing of the renaissance-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oration_on_the_Dignity_of_Man
  • Renaissance Spirit
    • liberal arts- rhetoric, antiquity, ...
    • secularism- in Italy
  • Humanism- liberal arts
    • coutiers- the people in the nobility within the court of the princes
    • ex. balsassare Castiglione- a noble born into a very pretigious family
    • wrote a book about how to be the proper noblemen
  • in 1494- Charles VIII of France invades Italy with the hope of conqueing naples http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_VII_of_France
  • Nicollo Machievelli-1529-1597
    • father of modern political science
    • wrote it hoping that he would be put back into power-the bigger context was in repsonse to the Italian wars from 1521-1526
    • any prince could use it to make their city strong again
    • three most important things for prince to know
      • fundementally moachiavelli was very pessimistic about humanity; princes should approach their relations with people from the pessimistic view of society
      • because human nature is selfish and greedy- a prince must be sly-use situations to his advantage
      • a prince must be ruthless and pragmatic- dealing with people you don't like to get what you want politically 

Tuesday, October 26, 2010

Key Terms for AP EURO test 1450-1650

  • Humanism: Liberal Art: education in Classics (Greek and Roman Literature), Rhetoric, and History
  • Vernacular: everyday language of a people
  • Important facts: first people writing in vernacular rather than Latin: Cervantes/Don Quixote/Spanish, Chaucer/Canterbury Tails/English, Dante/Divine Comedy/Italian, Martin Luther/95 Thesis/German
  • New Monarchs: Centralized Bureaucracy and professional armies
  • examples: Charles VII, Louis XI, Henry VII, Ferdinand and Isabella/fund Columbus's mission.
  • Taille- direct tax on the French Peasantry.Major source of income because tax was very large
  • Reconquista- Christian Spanish over Muslim Moors: 1492 last Muslim stronghold--Granada--overthrown and kicked out of Spain
  • reconquering against the Muslims in Spain
  • Indulgence- certificates sold by the papacy for the forgiveness of sin 
  • most important thing that Martin Luther was going to fight against
  • Anabaptist- believed exclusively in adult baptism. Also believed in a complete separation of church and state
  • ex. first amendment
  • Predestination: John Calvin believed in this: God has pre-determined all things
  • including who goes to heaven and hell
  • Huguenots: French Protestants who followed John Calvin
  • Politiques- type of ruler: one who puts political necessity above personal belief
  • ex. Elizabeth 
  • Columbian Exchange: transfer of goods between the Americas and Europe. Named after Columbus
  • also includes slavery, animal transport, introduction of non-indigenous plants, and disease
  • Mercantilism- economic philosophy calling for close government regulation on the economy. Maximizing exports and limiting imports
  • Join-Stock Company: business arrangement where the investors raise money for a venture no single one of them could afford.
  • particularly the English Colonists use to develop colonies in the new world

Thursday, October 21, 2010

Lurenzo Medicci

Cosimo Medicci's son

  • patron of Michealangelo 
  • one had to be be comissioned to do art
  • patron-comissioner
  • with death of Cosimo, the Medicci were in another fix
    • his death thrust Lorenzo into the spotlight
    • Cosimo died of natural causes
    • Cosimo wanted Lorenzo to stay out of politics to keep the bank successful
  • lorenzo was a scholar
  • not quite the business man
  • Florence was always about large powerful families
  • the patzi were a rival banking famly
  • were an old lineage
  • the Pazzi were a rival fam in Florence
  • Lorenzo was not as good as Cosimo when it came to business
    • was not good at being diplomatic
    • the Vadican owed Medici a great deal of money but Lorenzo insisted that some of it came due
    • Pafacy made closer relations with Pazzi with the idea that Pazzi would take out the Medici
    • to make their debts not exist anymore
  • plan to assasinate Lorenzo and his younger brother to stop Medici line
  • april 26 1478-easter day- Florentines came to celebrate in mass
    • plan for assasination
  • younger brother stabbed 19 times
    • juliono 
    • Lorenzo is wounded and he shows himself to the crowd to show that they were still alive
    • medici were back in business
    • very smart choice
  • the plotters lost and the supporters of medici were so upset that they were ready to kill the Pazzi
    • violence and revenge
    • shock waves went through tuscany
    • medici power now hung by a thread
  • pope ordered to wipe out the medici once and for all
  • 'people of florence worried for Lowenzo's survival
  • with charm, money, and good talking Medici held off the rivals and saved Florence
  • commissions DaVinci
    • he had talent that was impossible to ignore
    • tried oils for the first time
    • was about to give up painting before lorenzo commissioned him
  • savrignoila- feel Lorenzo will destory Florence
    • create a conservative conspiracy against Lorenzo
    • from the monks
    • agaisnt pagan art
    • wanted to destroy the lifestyle of pagan art and expression
  • lorenzo dies suddenly from tuberculoses at 34
  • lorenzo commissions and allows michaelangelo buennenarte to live at his hosue
    • had much approval from Lorenzo
    • michaelangleo born in 1475
    • dies in 1564
    • Beuonarroti-came from sort of a merchant class family
    • he had fallen in love with stone carving-used to go to quarries and watch them men chip the rocks
    • began his early developement through this
    • he was in a small studio when Lorenzo found him
  • Michaelangelo is quite invested in Lorenzo's approval
  • he was invited to the dinner table with other great artists
    • this gave Michaelangleo the chance to listen and learn new ways 
  • Increasingly drawn to the drama of the legends heard at home rather than religious prompts to paint
  • decadence of Lorenzo's reign was leading to the downfall of Florence
    • split down the middle between the people who wanted a secular lifestyle and the people who thought that society had gone off track
    • swept up in the excitement , Lorenzo lost his handle on the family business
  • Medici banks starts to fall apart-too much time put into the arts the dance the patronage etc. 
    • he was ignoring christianity 

  • more people asking for favors than favors distributed
  • Lorenzo's friends could see that Florence was going off track
  • Lorenzo gets seriously sick-it was because of his fears for the dynasty
  • he turns to the church
  • giovanni was already a cardinal
  • Lorenzo knew he was dying and now he needed something money could not buy
    • his materials will not resempt from all of his wrong choice
  • calls savenorola to his death bed fofr apology but savernaorolo damns him
  • at 43 lorenzo died fearing hell to his last breath
  • savanarola sees his chance and comes to power
    • he beats prostetutes
    • burns homosexuals
    • no jewelry is allowed to be worn
    • he wanted to create the kingdom of god on earth by any means necessary
    • savanarola organized a public burning 
    • burns all secular materials-all accessories of Lorenzo's vibrant renaissance
    • known as the bonifire of the vanity
    • renaissance going up in smoke
  • lorenzo magnificent era comes to an end

Monday, October 18, 2010

First Three Great Florentine Artists

Giotto-


Donatello-

Brunelleschi-

Tuesday, October 12, 2010

Machiavelli

  • based in Florence most all of his life
  • considered the beginner of political science
  • most known for his novel The Prince
  • written in 1513 but published after his death
  • the novel became extremely influential among renaissance politicians after his death
  • born into a wealthy family
  • one of the leading families in Florence
    • father a lawyer
  • At this time Florence is being fought over by the royal families
  • also outside pressures from France, from Spain, from Holy Roman Empire, etc.
  • Machiavelli was brought up well educated as a nobleman
  • and in his lifetime her wrote the book The Art of War
    • u

Friday, October 8, 2010

Brunelleschi

  • Florence Cathedral was built for a time without a roof
  • it was in need of a dome
  • Brunelleschi was the first one to take on the dome building
  • his style was unorthodox
  • this forced him into many tiffs and losses of allies
  • in the midst he had found patrons willing to gamble on his new ideas
  • in 1419 an orphanage in Florence became a showcase for his drawings
  • this was the first time columns had been used for support since Roman times
  • spark a revolution across Europe
  • Brunelleschi now set his eye on the problem of the dome
  • the greatest challenge in Florence
  • massive cash prize given because church was in great need for dome
  • Brunelleschi's ideas were the most unorthodox and unprecedented but were the most promising
  • had to rewrite the rules of western architecture 
  • turned to Greece and the Pantheon
  • had to determine the nuts and bolts of how it was built
  • his dome would have to support itself during the building
  • giovanni and Cosimo Du Medicci
    • Giovanni bank rolled the Pope and started the Dynasty
    • Cosimo
    • Medicci's became the bank of Europe
  • although rich, Giovanni wanted to stay modest
  • giovanni died in 1629
  • mourned a modest patron
  • deuling of rival families would endager teh Medicii dynasty
  • threaten to pull Flornce back into Middle Ages
  • meanwhile, Brunellesci also tried to escape the limitations of his age
  • when he was building the dome
    • many logisitic issue came up
    • came up with a way to change gears while pulling up loads so that the ox could keep walking in the same direction
  • crucial moment-will he fail?
  • there were no rules
    • bribed
    • killed
    • intimidated 
    • to get what you wanted and needed
  • wanted to wipe out the Medicci
  • People agaisn the Medici
  • Cosimo was at the mercy of his enemies
  • cosimo faces execution because he was found guilty
    • but he had friends and paid him a hefty bribe to get him out
  • cosimo was banished from Florence
    • Brunelleschi was throne into jail
    • the Medici bank ran every thing
  • Cosimo waited for the people to lose control of city without control of banks
    • palace of government was attacked
  • Medici became back in business
    • money fled back to Florence
    • the bank continued again to grow
    • Brunelleschi came back to build the throne
  • bank collected money from every perish 
    • threatened excommunication for those who were slow on paying up
  • the bank was the most profitable business in Europe
  • economic power relates directly to the Medici political power
    • pope rescued to become the leading family in Florence
    • their rivals- Albizzi - in charge of Florence for generations
    • bank offered credit to the nobility
  • In Britain there was fatalism- no social mobility
    • in Italy, in case of Brunelleschi, men are able to be drawn into power from contrasting classes
    • no fatalism

  • art was only made when one was commissioned for it
  • dome was a harring-bone designe
    • horizontal layered over vertical bricks
  • Dome is successful

Northern Italy

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/?period=08&region=eustn
Read Overview and Key events

Tuesday, October 5, 2010

Last Elizabeth Continued

  • her one relationship was with Dudley's stepson who was 19 when she was 53
  • She really loved him though because he assaulted her many times but she forgave
  • she would forgive him for anything he did against England
  • Elizabeth signed to have him executed for treason
  • she was becoming increasingly frail
  • she was becoming sick and claimed she did not want to live any longer
  • she got around all main monarch issue and outlived them
  • was 69 when she died in Richmond
  • her funeral was a great grief for England
  • Elizabeth had ruled for 44 years
  • she had left England with all the problems she had successfully ignored
  • James VI -son of Mary Queen of Scott's
  • he would become queen of England

Monday, October 4, 2010

Elizabeth Continued

Elizabeth is born to Anne Boleyn

  • the armada and the battle
  • she is a legend
  • she presided over a great age
  • she always managed to slip into success
  • stigmatized as a bastard by her own father
  • surmised to become England's best loved queen
  • Elizabeth I came to throne at age 25
  • ruled for 44 years
  • perfected the art of diplomacy
  • Elizabethan age is after her
  • Henry VIII and Anne were secretly married
  • She was christened Elizabeth the daughter of the two
  • sent to work as a lady-in-waiting

  • Mary and Elizabeth were enemies
  • tension and jealousy between the two
  • detail was extremely important in clothing-it was a symbol of status
  • law was passed that only his rightful heirs were his children by Anne
  • Boleyn miscarried a boy and his days with a wife were numbered
  • Henry needed to dispose of her
  • she was arrested for adultery and treason
  • sentenced to death-Anne Boleyn
  • Elizabeth was also designated a bastard child
  • intensley secretive, highly proud, highly intelligent

  • Henry then married Jane Seymour
  • the sisters became closer
  • soon their half brother Edward VI was born
  • Elizabeth received a great education for a women in her time because of the support from Henry's sixth wife
  • a precarious child- as grave as a woman of 40
  • fascinated by Henry's power and wealth
  • for her, he was no ordinary father
  • she was her father's daughter
  • Henry was aging rapidly-grossly overweight
  • he had life threatening blood clots and a sour temper
  • Elizabeth did not realize her two faced father

  • Edward came into power when Elizabeth was fourteen
  • Edward was only ten years old
  • Elizabeth lived with Katherine Parr
  • Edward Seymour was the protector of the realm
  • always fighting for power
  • Thomas Seymour took power until Edward was of age
  • he wanted to rekindle his love affair for Catherine Parr
  • Seymour would sexually abuse Elizabeth
  • finally Catherine Parr had to put a stop to it and blamed Elizabeth
  • child abuse
  • her early life was crucial and taught her to watch her back
  • it also left her with damage around her emotions
  • soon after Catherine died in childbirth
  • rumor had it that Elizabeth planned to marry Seymour
  • Elizabeth knew not to go with it
  • her brother would no longer talk to her because of Thomas Seymour
  • Seymour was later executed

  • Eventually the Seymour scandal died down
  • Elizabeth dressed in stark black and white
  • Dudley became the protector- and wanted Mary not in rule next to keep his job
  • when edward died his death was kept secret so that Dudley could make his plot
  • Mary still emerged victorious
  • Elizabeth realized that she could possibly come into power as well
  • lived a frugal life
  • she was next up to the throne and that was dangerous because England had been changed to Catholic by Mary
  • this still gave Elizabeth a huge boost of popularity
  • Mary and Elizabeth needed to reconcile before Mary's death
  • crucial to Elizabeth because she had competition to power

  • Mary would let Elizabeth to throne as long as she kept England Catholic
  • she said "this is the lords day it is marvelous in our day"
  • Elizabeth moved to London as the new monarch
  • her loyalty had paid off
  • she was not afraid of her responsibility
  • enjoyed herself after all of her years of isolation 
  • she was unpredictable
  • her quick temple was notorious
  • she would have to read in a quiet chamber until she calmed down
  • she loved dancing though
  • believed she was chosen by God to rule England

  • she let people know that she would never marry a man for other people's liking
  • flaunted her availability
  • she only admired Robert Dudley
  • he was married, however
  • Robert's wife was later found dead with a broken neck
  • rumors of foul play
  • circumstances made the future imponderable 
  • she got small pox
  • the future was far too uncertain
  • next in line was Elizabeth's cousin Mary Queen of Scots

  • In 1567- Mary came after Elizabeth to get away from those chasing her
  • Elizabeth imprisoned her for 17 years
  • Mary had many sexual affairs
  • Mary was seemingly asking for her own death, yet Elizabeth could not get herself to execute her
  • Elizabeth really is crippled and least decisive monarch
  • The two women never met even though thee 
  • in 1587 Mary was beheaded for plotting to kill Elizabeth
  • Elizabethan age

  • during 1570's Elizabeth's ruling was hindered by her availability and neighboring countries
  • she was extremely vain
  • she wore loads of jewelry
  • sensitive about her portrait paintings not showing her age
  • she replaced catholic festivals with new festivals based around the virgin queen
  • she turns this imagery for herself as the virgin monarch
  • her central idea for her own advantage
  • by 1478 she was in her late forties

  • She realized that something needed to be done about her alliance with Spain
  • in 1588 the spanish armada came into the Englash channel
  • but the English were ready and were more heavily armed
  • only few went home to Spain with alive
  • English win

  • The queen was growing old but she was a successful queen
  • she hated change 
  • she was not responsible for nay of the changes
  • she had not compassion for the artists of her time
  • not plays were performed
  • she was brilliant at self promotion
  • she knew that a small country had to beat a large drum
  • joy followed by grief because Dudley died 
  • she contained her youth and energy until her sixties

Elizabeth Continued

Elizabeth is born to Anne Boleyn

  • the armada and the battle
  • she is a legend
  • she presided over a great age
  • she always managed to slip into success
  • stigmatized as a bastard by her own father
  • surmised to become England's best loved queen
  • Elizabeth I came to throne at age 25
  • ruled for 44 years
  • perfected the art of diplomacy
  • Elizabethan age is after her
  • Henry VIII and Anne were secretly married
  • She was christened Elizabeth the daughter of the two
  • sent to work as a lady-in-waiting

  • Mary and Elizabeth were enemies
  • tension and jealousy between the two
  • detail was extremely important in clothing-it was a symbol of status
  • law was passed that only his rightful heirs were his children by Anne
  • Boleyn miscarried a boy and his days with a wife were numbered
  • Henry needed to dispose of her
  • she was arrested for adultery and treason
  • sentenced to death-Anne Boleyn
  • Elizabeth was also designated a bastard child
  • intensley secretive, highly proud, highly intelligent

  • Henry then married Jane Seymour
  • the sisters became closer
  • soon their half brother Edward VI was born
  • Elizabeth received a great education for a women in her time because of the support from Henry's sixth wife
  • a precarious child- as grave as a woman of 40
  • fascinated by Henry's power and wealth
  • for her, he was no ordinary father
  • she was her father's daughter
  • Henry was aging rapidly-grossly overweight
  • he had life threatening blood clots and a sour temper
  • Elizabeth did not realize her two faced father

  • Edward came into power when Elizabeth was fourteen
  • Edward was only ten years old
  • Elizabeth lived with Katherine Parr
  • Edward Seymour was the protector of the realm
  • always fighting for power
  • Thomas Seymour took power until Edward was of age
  • he wanted to rekindle his love affair for Catherine Parr
  • Seymour would sexually abuse Elizabeth
  • finally Catherine Parr had to put a stop to it and blamed Elizabeth
  • child abuse
  • her early life was crucial and taught her to watch her back
  • it also left her with damage around her emotions
  • soon after Catherine died in childbirth
  • rumor had it that Elizabeth planned to marry Seymour
  • Elizabeth knew not to go with it
  • her brother would no longer talk to her because of Thomas Seymour
  • Seymour was later executed

  • Eventually the Seymour scandal died down
  • Elizabeth dressed in stark black and white
  • Dudley became the protector- and wanted Mary not in rule next to keep his job
  • when edward died his death was kept secret so that Dudley could make his plot
  • Mary still emerged victorious
  • Elizabeth realized that she could possibly come into power as well
  • lived a frugal life
  • she was next up to the throne and that was dangerous because England had been changed to Catholic by Mary
  • this still gave Elizabeth a huge boost of popularity
  • Mary and Elizabeth needed to reconcile before Mary's death
  • crucial to Elizabeth because she had competition to power

  • Mary would let Elizabeth to throne as long as she kept England Catholic
  • she said "this is the lords day it is marvelous in our day"
  • Elizabeth moved to London as the new monarch
  • her loyalty had paid off
  • she was not afraid of her responsibility
  • enjoyed herself after all of her years of isolation 
  • she was unpredictable
  • her quick temple was notorious
  • she would have to read in a quiet chamber until she calmed down
  • she loved dancing though
  • believed she was chosen by God to rule England

  • she let people know that she would never marry a man for other people's liking
  • flaunted her availability
  • she only admired Robert Dudley
  • he was married, however
  • Robert's wife was later found dead with a broken neck
  • rumors of foul play
  • circumstances made the future imponderable 
  • she got small pox
  • the future was far too uncertain
  • next in line was Elizabeth's cousin Mary Queen of Scots

  • In 1567- Mary came after Elizabeth to get away from those chasing her
  • Elizabeth imprisoned her for 17 years
  • Mary had many sexual affairs
  • Mary was seemingly asking for her own death, yet Elizabeth could not get herself to execute her
  • Elizabeth really is crippled and least decisive monarch
  • The two women never met even though thee 
  • in 1587 Mary was beheaded for plotting to kill Elizabeth
  • Elizabethan age

  • during 1570's Elizabeth's ruling was hindered by her availability and neighboring countries
  • she was extremely vain
  • she wore loads of jewelry
  • sensitive about her portrait paintings not showing her age
  • she replaced catholic festivals with new festivals based around the virgin queen
  • she turns this imagery for herself as the virgin monarch
  • her central idea for her own advantage
  • by 1478 she was in her late forties

  • She realized that something needed to be done about her alliance with Spain
  • in 1588 the spanish armada came into the Englash channel
  • but the English were ready and were more heavily armed
  • only few went home to Spain with alive
  • English win

  • The queen was growing old but she was a successful queen
  • she hated change 
  • she was not responsible for nay of the changes
  • she had not compassion for the artists of her time
  • not plays were performed
  • she was brilliant at self promotion
  • she knew that a small country had to beat a large drum
  • joy followed by grief because Dudley died 
  • she contained her youth and energy until her sixties

Friday, October 1, 2010

Elizabeth Imake


  • Elizabeth II was Protestant and was Anne Boleyn's daughter
  • Elizabeth never married- the Tudor line will not continue in England u=
  • Upon her death, Elizabeth will be succeeded by some one outside of the Tudor family
  • Marriage was out of political convenience. 
  • Elizabeth's choice to not marry was also a political thing- 
    • used the idea of being the virgin queen
    • she did not want to relinquish any of her power to a man
    • kept from getting into any sticky alliances with neighboring countries
  • Spain is going to put together a large fleet of naval ships against England
  • Elizabeth will fight back
  • English will win the battle
movie trailer-
  • must be between two and a half to three minutes long
  • put up on you-tube
  • the trailer should illustrate no less than a half dozen major significant events in Elziabeth's life
  • include primary source material-what people are saying may be directly from a primary source
  • make it really look like a movie trailer 
Elizabeth- 
Mary of Scots-