Wednesday, September 29, 2010

Was Henry VIII justified in divorcing Catherine and making himself head of the Church of England?

              
In the year 1509, King Henry VIII married Catherine of Aragon, former Ambassador of the Spanish Court and Princess of Wales.  Catherine originally married Henry’s brother, Arthur; however, Henry’s brother died prematurely, leaving Catherin a widow. Henry VII wanted to keep his alliance with Spain, and set Henry VIII to marry Catherine as the resolution. By special dispensation, because marriage to a wife of one’s older brother is illegal by biblical and church law, Pope Julius II allowed for the two to marry. Shortly into the marriage, Henry came to believe that it was cursed by Catherine having only a daughter, many miscarriages, and no male heirs.  Henry VIII wanted a divorce from this union and quickly became captivated and infatuated with Catherine’s lady-in-waiting, Anne Boleyn. Just as the marriage needed special indulgence, the annulment to a special papal marriage would be nearly impossible. Along with this, at the time, Pope Clement VII had been imprisoned by Catherine’s nephew Charles V. This emperor would not reassure the pope to annul a marriage against his own aunt.  Henry VIII ordered Cardinal Wolsey to secure the royal annulment. Even though the matter of the situation was insuperable, Wolsey’s failure to annul dismissed him from Henry’s right side. From this came Thomas Cromwell, with Lutheran sympathies, who became Henry’s adviser. It was Cromwell who realized that annulment of such a marriage was impossible, yet Henry declaring himself power over all spiritual matter away from Rome was feasible. These selfish acts brought about marriage to many wives, the Church of England, and the Protestant Reformation. Overall, in the act of divorcing Catherine to seek a male heir reproduction, Henry VIII was only senselessly corrupt, yet in response, from Henry to the Pope, the brash decision to completely break from the Catholic Church of England was completely unjust and had many side effects.
                The divorce from Catherine brought upon secret plots, advantageous uses of Henry’s power, and Henry VIII’s occupation to go about his way of opposing Catholic England. In a letter from Catherine to Henry soon before her death, the unreasonable force upon her death was exemplified as unfair. Catherine explained to Henry VIII that her love was undoubtedly for him, yet Henry only labeled her as a curse to his profession. In her later years, Catherine was forced to live in confinement as she began showing the mortal side effects of her disease. She still claimed her title as Queen of England; however, Henry VIII secretly married Anne Boleyn, declared his marriage to Catherin illegitimate, and designated Catherine’s title back to what it had been with his brother Arthur. In the sixteenth century, political marriages to create rightful heirs were understandable, and Catherine was dying anyhow.  On the contrary, the faith of Catherine in Henry’s sensibility was overbearing, as she wished that “I commend unto thou our doughtere Mary, beseeching thou to be a good father unto her” (Turner). In reality, Mary was considered the bastard child after Henry declared his first marriage illegitimate. By the end, Henry was steadfast and happily married to Anne Boleyn, while Catherine was dying as she made the vow that “that mine eyes desire you above all things” (EnglishHistory.net). If Henry had executed Catherine to marry Boleyn, then his acts would have been beyond immoral; however, it is understandable that political strategy would rule over sensible affairs when it comes to carrying on the Tudor name.
                In order for Henry to do what he chose in an era of strict adherence to Catholicism, The Church of England completely changed the King’s power and the realm of England. At this time, a torrent of legislations was put upon England so that full power and reign over religious affairs was given to the parliament. With this came ideas such that any amendment made by the monarch must be accepted by the parliament. The year 1533 brought the Convocation, which produced the English clergy and publically designated Henry as the head of the Church of England. These laws began to bring up objections by parliament members for the obsessive amendments that had been made (The Western Heritage). After Henry married Boleyn, he passed restriction that no payment could be given to Rome, but rather, Henry allotted authority over religious appointments. Significantly in this time of religious amending, The Law of Supremacy was passed in 1534, giving Henry upmost assumption to clerical powers. This made Henry the “…only supreme head in earth of the Church of England, called Anglicans Ecclesia; and shall have and enjoy, annexed and united to the imperial crown of this realm;” yet, this was being done “to the pleasure of Almighty God, the increase of virtue in Christ's religion, and for the conservation of the peace, unity, and tranquility of this realm” ("The Act of Supremacy."). The increasing power of Henry was anticipated by his grievous stature, but the statement in the Act of Supremacy stating that Henry’s choices were to pleasure God seem farce in that it only granted him more power in the realm.
                The indication that little theological amendments were made to differentiate the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church solidifies that Henry went through the trouble only to please himself. His brashness and dominance in politics were in high contrast to Henry VIII’s conservative ideals on religion. With the Church of England, all art was destroyed, the church was left close to bare, the bible was printed in English, but otherwise all else remains quite similar to Catholicism. No clergy members could marry, despite Henry’s many marriages himself. Henry VIII was personally angry over his advisor’s excitement to reformat protestant views, and with that, Henry made his Six Articles declaring to maintain transubstantiation, to decline the Eucharistic cup, to force all clergy celibate, to keep private masses, and the to conserve the prolongation of oral confessions ("Select Documents of English ...").  The Protestants took this offensively in that they were shot down in liberally reshaping the Church of England. For Henry VIII’s aspirtiations for dominance, his formation of the church did little to regenerate religion and only affirmed that the reformation of religious views would not progress during his reign in the Church of England.
                 In the resolution of Henry’s troubles with Catherine of Aragon, Henry VIII ended up restructuring his power and the face of religious England. The events that began as a way of retrieving simply a clean slate of family life, turned into a grievous hunt for power. Many executions came through Henry VIII’s reign, and many aristocrats were pushed aside and replaced by Henry. Even Anne Boleyn was executed for not producing a male heir, herself. Henry VIII had six wives and only one son, Edward VI. After Henry’s death, Edward came into power, and then both of Henry’s daughters followed, and only religious turmoil was to be created. Henry’s brash decisions were the roots for the religious warfare in England during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. It seems as if Henry’s hunt for his own power only dug a deeper whole for his now Protestant isolated country to climb out of. In due course, Henry’s divorce to Catherine was not outlandish or ghastly for the time period, yet his obsessive hunt for power above his reigning country came to corrupt religious England.  
               

Works Cited
"The Act of Supremacy." Then Again. . . Web. 29 Sept. 2010.                 <http://www.thenagain.info/Classes/Sources/ActSupremacy.html>.
"Medieval Sourcebook: The Suppression of Glastonbury Abbey." FORDHAM.EDU. Web. 29 Sept. 2010.                 <http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/h8-glastonbury.html>.
"Primary Sources - Letter of Katharine of Aragon to Her Husband, King Henry VIII, 7 January        1536." EnglishHistory.net. Web. 29 Sept. 2010. <http://englishhistory.net/tudor/letter5.html>. 
The Western Heritage/Donald Kagan, Steven Ozment, Frank M. Turner. –9th ed. P. cm. New Jersey;        Pearson Education Inc., 2007
Sharon Turner, The History of England from the Earliest Period to the Death of Elizabeth (Longman, Rees,             Orme,                 Brown and Green,1828)
"Select Documents of English ..." Google Books. Web. 29 Sept. 2010. <http://books.google.com/books?


Recatholization of England

Elizabeth I was considered to be an ingenious politician
Mary Queen of Scots had haunted and fascinated Elizabeth
Mary was a complete disaster however she reproduced
This is the story of two women- one a politician and the other a mother


  • a cherrished tradition the when Elizabeth heard that she'd be queen she say under the oak tree and read the bible
  • a little short of being a miracle that she made it to that day
  • she was only two when Anne was executed through her failure to produce a son
  • Anne was considered possessed by the devil to be unable to produce a male child
  • Elizabeth was suspicious as Anne's daughter
  • Elizabeth had a relationship with Semour that would be considered great treason
  • she had to prove it false
  • she was just fourteen years old
  • she already had courage and confidence in consuming power

  • When Mary came to the throne, Elizabeth found herself in the tower
  • she was able to talk herself out of execution but she was under strict radar
  • Mary died a few years later, childless
  • Elizabeth, clever and dazzling, had to know that her new power would be dangerous as she was of the wrong sex
  • she came in with high hopes and deap anxieties
  • the celelbrations at her cornoation were designed to show her off and give her potential
  • she had controling energy right from the start
  • her first appearances at the council were fulfilled with manly authority
  • she did all the things that women were nt mean to do
  • she looked men in the eye and spoke out of place
  • her tuder taught her the art of rhetoric 
  • it was her strongest political weapon
  • she adored being adored

  • adoration wasn't the same thing as alliegence however
  • charizma was not the same thing that would cure the future of preotestant England, a male heir
  • most of England was still Catholic
  • it would be difficult to take back what Mary already damaged

  • Robert Daughlty-was flashy, gallant, and good looking
  • he was on the council
  • he helped Elizabeth
  • both fathers were executed
  • they became lovers
  • he had a wife 
  • he was waiting for her to die so that he could be free
  • she paraded her virginity by leaving her hair down
  • it would be invalid to sleep with Daughlty so the politician in her kept her from making the wrong decision
  • Daughtly's wife was murdered- golden age of gossip
  • believed she had been pushed
  • Elizabeth sent Daughtly away until suspicion was off of her
  • she almost gave up on marrying Daughtly 


  • Mary Stewart was beautiful
  • she was more than just competition- to Elizabeth she was a menace
  • Mary was Catholic
  • She is Henry VII's great grandaughter
  • Her grandmother was Henry Tudor's daughter, Margaret Tudor. She married James IV King of Scotland
  • their son is James V and James V's daughter is Mary queen of Scots
  • she was born in 1542
  • Elizabeth was daughter of Henry's ilegal marraige
  • Mary viewed this as being illegitimate
  • Marry was next in line to English throne if ELizabeth died childless
  • The relationship between the cousins was tainted with suspicions
  • Mary had no intention of being told what to do by Elizabeth
  • Elizabeth wanted her to marry a Protestant
  • Mary became a dillusioned drunk
  • she fell in love with the Catholic Italian Prince
  • in 1566 a group proposed a violent coo to get rid of the Italian Catholic 
  • while Mary was dining, the men stabbed him to death in front of her

  • Mary knew how to turn terror into power
  • she was pregnant
  • mother and child would survive
  • her prior husband was a drunk anyways
  • they had a son James VI
  • Elizabeth greatly upset
  • Mary was by now so consumed with contempt to get rid of her husband
  • Bothwell was rich promiscuous and dangerous
  • Mary turned to him as protector
  • he was too happy to solve her prolems
  • Bothwell supervised the lighting of a fuse to burn Mary's husband's house
  • he died from it

  • his murder was a pivotal moment in her life
  • she was sick, vomitting black mucus
  • Boswell was there to help
  • he offered himself to marry her and abduct her to plot to rape her and find himself king of scots
  • she was forced to marry him
  • it was at this point that Mary lost it
  • she lost control over her own body
  • she lost Scotland
  • it would have never happend if she would have been half the politician the Elizabeth was
  • she could have presented herself as a victimized mother instead of a whore
  • he left Mary
  • she was abused- said to be a prostetute

  • he half brother took charge of Mary's baby and took charge of Scotland
  • Mary's history seemed done but of course it was not
  • she had one last weapon- beauty
  • she unleashed her seductive charm on her jailer
  • and he melted in adoration
  • in may 1568, Mary made a get-a-way
  • she had to appeal to her cousin Elizabeth to get the throne back
  • she stayed there for 19 years
  • she cropped her hair for disguise
  • Mary's appearance made turmoil
  • was Mary her heir or not
  • Elizabeth was 35 already
  • Elizabeth still had not gotten married
  • would Mary be treated like the next in line?
  • Mary complained and only got a packet of linen to wear
  • Elizabeth was already wearing Mary's favorite stolen pearls
  • Elizabeth didn't know what to do with Mary- she was disgusted by her


  • Elizabeth ordered for the execution of Mary's husband
  • Mary was now nothing but a prisoner
  • held in derbyshire
  • she was held in the midlands
  • there were many political heavy weights for which mary was 
  • they wanted to marry the queen of scots to the duke of the realm
  • he was a conforming protestant
  • it was reasonable to see the marraige as healing wounds
  • plot failed
  • catholic Britain seems to be reborn
  • Elizabeth knows what she is up against
  • twelve thousand troupes were mustered and rebellion brutally crushed
  • the northern rising destroyed Tudor England

Tuesday, September 28, 2010

Holy Roman Empire

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holy_Roman_Empire


image from: commons.wikimedia.org

Notes on Henry VIII

  • remember to read overview of reformation and Anne Boleyn's downfall at www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/tudors/
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/tudors/reformation_overview_01.shtml
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/tudors/anne_boleyn_01.shtml
  • He is first married to Katherine of Aragon who only produces a female child named Mary.
  • Because of this, Henry divorces and married Anne Boleyn
  • Katherine is executed
  • However, she cannot not produce a male heir either and only produces daughter Elizabeth
  •  Cardenal and Henry realizes that if something happens to Henry then the power would be taken by his first daughter, Mary.
  • Something needed to be done so that Henry could marry some one else
  • Anne is executed and Henry remarries
  • Henry never actually produces a male heir
Extra Notes From the Movie We Watched
  • Cromwell was the Cardinal against Anne
  • his arrest on her only took two weeks to cook up
  • Anne was to be killed
  • Anne had been considered to be possessed by having sex with so many other people including her brother
  • this brought upon Cromwell's ability to arrest and execute Anne
  • beheaded in the bell tower
  • expert swordsman was brought over from France to behead Anne
  • She burst out laughing before death

  •   When news of Anne's execution met the city it was said that the candels in the church spontaneously combusted
  • in 1537, Henry had a new wife Jane of Semour
  • he had a son with her Edward VI
  • but his wife died twelve days later as a result of the childbirth
  • then a remarkable thing happened- the King blamed the English bible for his misfortunes
  • the readings of the bible were banned in the city
  • law was introduced restricting the reading of the bible for church clergy
  • townspeople were lost without the bible
  • dies in the 1440's- leaves line of recession to the girls- they are now his legitimate child
  • Mary was once illegitimated as his child
  • he restores Mary and Elizabeth
  • he married Anne against the rights of the Vatican making the offspring of the divorce and new marraige considered illegitimate 
  • Line of succession- Edward VI, Mary-Catholic sister, Elizabeth-Protestant

  • in 1540 Cromwell had been executed after his scheme with Lutheran's failed
  • Priests again could not marry
  • Core Catholic beliefs turned out to be Henry's too
  • he wanted a national church divorced from Rome but remarried to the English crown
  • he was satisfied with the middle-way that he had found
  • he was the guardian of the temporal and the spiritual realm

  • Edward came after Henry and Mary and Katherine came into power after Henry's death
  • they covered the religious spectrum 
  • but religion would depend of birth, deaths, and marriages
  • Edward had been educated for Protestants
  • Edward was nine years old and was seen as a boy-god who came to set thigns straight
  • all of the customs and ceremonies of the old church were banned 
  • away with the religious guilds and ceremonies
  • no more saints
  • no more artwork-attacked with artwork
  • new prayer brought English into the heart of the church service
  • only one church at the time
  • church was bare to abolish the distance between the priest and his floor
  • first time Pries invited people to communion and used English, it made the people grimace
  • ...How does a nine year old have the ability to come up with these confident ideas??
  • act of uniformity in 1459
  • Mary was Catholic-because Katherine was devout Catholic
  • Elizabeth is Protestant because Anne was in the reformation with Henry
  • challanged to wait for Edward to die childless
  • in 1453- Edward died
  • England's first female ruler since queen Matilda

  • Queen Mary
  • she was raised outside of England
  • her mother, being Katherine, and out of the scene, the family took Mary out of Continental Europe
  • she grew up in France in a strictly Catholic family
  • always an outcast in English society
  • does everything in her power of Monarch to counteract the reformation
  • paint the churches and bring back catholic art
  • goes out of her way to say to the people of England that either they return to the fold or they die
  • a  bitter campaign against heretics and her alliances
  • alliances with Catholic monarchs in Spain and a Castle in Scottland
  • becomes known as the queen of Scotts
  • there is much confusion and political intrigue surrounding the end of Mary's reign and the rise of Elizabeth 
  • there was a plot on Elizabeth's life; however, there was immense support for the rise of Elizabeth and her protestant aspirations
  • finally, convinced that Mary is undermining England through her alliances with Catholic England- she is pushed out and executed for treason against England.              
  • things are about to get really bad- she wants to make church Catholic again
  • religious war against England
  • in 1554 both houses of parliament was corrupted by the children of Henry
  • Mary wanted the restoration of Latin mass
  • Rome forgave them
  • all would be fruitless unless she could produce a Catholic heir 
  • phillip II of Spain
  • Wanted a Catholic Spanish wedding like her mother, yet a Catholic marraige now was not something that could be taken for granted
  • it was a foreign idea
  • Wyatt faught to dethrone Mary but it failed
  • ecstatic, for the first time in her lonely life she had Phillip to rely on
  • she had to destroy the Protestant England and turn it Catholic again
  • burned and killed many ordinary people in Mary's body because they were not Catholic
  • She dies childless- no heirs 
  • Catholic England was doomed

  • Elizabeth came into power with great support from the public
  • when she takes the throne she reinstates her Father's laws
  • abolished Catholic mass and is banished from England
  • an immediate effect-immediate rise of intentions between England and Spain
  • Spain is Catholic and a great political power
  • Spain has a strong army- Pope wants Spain to attack 
  • Elizabeth couldn't help her reign as being stated as a truly English reign
  • she reigns for a very long time
  • once the troubles of the Spanish is done her peace, prosperity, and most importantly a rise of the sense of nationalism with protestantism becomes strengthened
  • Protestant England was back
  • felt that God must have meant for this to happen
  • national identity became an obsession in England
  • catholics were forced to choose between their church and their queen
  • age of great court poets
  • age of Shakespeare
  • Age of exploration and adventure
  • however her reign had its many low points
  • at the beginning of her reign the English army suffers defeat in Scotland
  • England is at great Parole with Spanish Navy at points
  • England becomes cut off from the rest of Europe
  • a real wall if forged between Protestant England and Catholic Spain, France, and Italy

  • Whatever happened to Catholic England-
  • thrown away 
  • a final disaster
  • what was once the national church became a faith on the run

Remember- Mary I of England was Elizabeth's half sister she was not executed rather she had a disease and died relatively young. She was the queen of the Scots. She became queen after her brother Edward VI died. Her official title was queen of England and Ireland, she wanted to return England to the Catholic church. She is the one known as bloody mary-lead the burning campaigns against Protestants. She is considered the Bastard Child. Mary died and Elizabeth came in after.
HOWEVER: Mary Stewart is the Queen of Scotland and she is also called Mary I. She is the Mary of Scotland 


Friday, September 24, 2010

Part's I,II, and III due Monday Sept. 28

Part I
Summaries
·         Henry V
King Henry V ruled from 1413-1422 and was the son of Henry IV and Mary de Bohun. He originated from the House of Lancaster and ruled from age 26 to age 35, focusing most on gaining territories that were once possessed by his ancestors. He was most known for his invades on France during the Hundred Year’s War. One of these invades being where Henry completely demolished the French army in the Battle of Againcourt. This was his most prestigious accomplishment; however, Henry V died of an unknown illness shortly after at the age of 35.
·         Henry VI
Son of Henry V and Catherine de Valois, Henry VI ruled from 1422-1461 and from 1470-1471. As an infant, Henry VI was crowned King of both England and France, but he proclaimed himself ruler of England and lost all his territories except Calais in the Hundred Year’s War. In 1455, Henry VI married French royalty Margaret of Anjou at age 32, unfortunately, however, in that same year; Henry VI suffers his first mental illness. The crown gets transferred unwillingly by Henry VI to Richard, Duke of York, and when Henry finally recovers, he clashes with Richard to get his crown back. This clash over the rule of England began the War of the Roses. Within these dynastic battles, Henry regained power but only for a year because he was captured by Richard’s son Edward IV to be imprisoned and murdered.
·         King Edward IV
King Edward IV was the son of Richard Duke of York and Cecily Neville. He had ten children and was crowned at the age of 19 and continued to rule from 1461-1470 and from 1471- 1483. King Edward’s foremost accomplishment was gaining power as a Duke of York to complete a full decade of reigning power in his family name. Prior to this, however, in the War of the Roses, Edward IV fought battles alongside his father and defeated the Lancastrians at Mortimer’s Cross to be crowned king that March of 1461. From here, King Edward married Elizabeth Woodville in 1964, setting up for many troubles to come. Edward fled to Holland in September of 1470 to avoid the Lancastrian armies, but was able to come back and defeat them the next year in the battle of Tewkesbury. That same year, a significant choice of Edward’s was to have Henry VI executed. Twelve years later, Edward IV died and left behind to prodigal sons that unfortunately also died less than a year after their father in the Tower of London.
·         King Edward V
Edward V was the son of Edward IV and Elizabeth Wydville, who never married nor had any children. Edward V was twelve years old when his father died leaving him with the throne. Before the coronation date, however, Edward V was taken by his uncle and protector Richard, Duke of Gloucester, whom canceled the coronation date. With this, Edward V and his brother Richard were confined to the Tower of London. Later in June of the same year, 1483, Edward’s royalty was considered invalid by Parliament and because the marriage of his parents was declared illegal. Both Edward and Richard were murdered shortly after generating one of the most infamous murder mysteries in history.
·         Richard III
Richard III was also the son of Edward IV and Elizabeth Wydville and was proclaimed Duke of Gloucester in 1461. He was the younger brother of King Edward IV and helped fight for him at the battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury. After Edward’s death in 1483, Richard took over Edwards heirs Edward V and Richard and sent them to the Tower of London, leading to the young boys’ deaths. In that same year as his brother’s death and his nephew’s murders, Richard III was crowned king. Richard III was killed, however, by Henry VII in 1485 at the battle of Bosworth Field.
·         Henry VII
King Henry VII was a part of the Tudor family and was specifically the son of Edmund Tudor and Margaret Beaufort. Henry VII ruled from 1485-1509 and was the first ruler of the Tudor family. Near the end of the War of the Roses, Henry VII had been living in France in Brittany. After the deaths of Henry VI and his son Edward, Henry VII became Head of the House of Lancaster though his mother’s bloodline. The declining acts of Richard III brought Henry VII nearer to the Kingship, and in 1485, Henry VII defeated the Yorkish army and killed Richard III at the battle of Bosworth. In that same year, Henry VII was crowned king. Marrying Elizabeth of York in 1486, allowed for Henry to bring together rival houses, yet he still defeated all Yorkish endeavor to regain the throne. Also, remarkably, Henry VII rebuilt the Richmond Place and the chapel at Westminster Abbey. Henry VII died at age 52 in 1509, but he was ultimately the king that lead England into the renaissance period.


Part II
Why did Shakespeare portray Richard III the way he did?
Shakespeare illustrated Richard III as a villainous hunchback who would commit eleven murders to become king. Richard III came off as a grievous, evil character whom is not ashamed of his choices. It was understood to be a bit of an exaggerated portrayal of Richard; however, Shakespeare’s writing of the King was still generally accepted as dependable. Shakespeare made this renowned play into a malo-drama of wicked King Richard III mainly because it is known that Shakespeare used sources written by Tudor Historians. One main primary source used for this was Raphael’s Holinshed’s Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland. This texts and others were each on the Lancastrian side of the view of Richard III, hence the characterization of Richard III in Shakespeare’s Richard III.
Traditionalist: is the orthodox view on a historical event and the adherence to authority and institutions (Dictionary.com). Examples: Traditionalist view of Richard III was considered to be the Tudor Historian view (“The Society-History”). The traditionalist view on kingships changed in the Renaissance under Henry VII’s rule, because religion became a greater driving force to the royalty (EnglishHistory.net).
Revisionist: One that writes history as a reinterpretation or assumption on facts surrounding a historical event. Ex: Revisionist view of Richard III in Shakespeare’s play, Richard III that was extracted from traditional primary sources.
Lancastrian: One on the side of the House of Lancaster during the War of the Roses. The Lancastrian line was carried down after the House’s extinction through the Tudor family and was against the House of York (“House of Lancaster”). Royal Lancastrians included Henry V and Henry VI (Wikipedia). Lancastrians were against Richard III and are the source of Richard’s deformed portrayal.
Ricardian: A term given to the idea of anyone who is interested in recovering the posthumous character of Richard III. These people are those who argue that Richard was a fair person born into an unfair body. The origin of the term is from the Yorkist army in the War of the Roses (“Richardian (Richard III)”). An example of a Ricardian group includes the Richard III Society founded in 1924 (Richard III Society).
Works Cited
Dictionary.com | Find the Meanings and Definitions of Words at Dictionary.com. Web. 21 Sept. 2010.                         <http://dictionary.reference.com/>.
"House of Lancaster." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 21 Sept. 2010.                <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Lancaster>.
"King Henry VIII: Biography, Portraits, Primary Sources." EnglishHistory.net. Web. 21 Sept. 2010.                         <http://englishhistory.net/tudor/monarchs/henry8.html>.
"Ricardian (Richard III)." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 21 Sept. 2010.    <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ricardian_(Richard_III)>.
Richard III Society - American Branch. Web. 21 Sept. 2010. <http://www.r3.org/>.
"The Society - History." The Richard III Society. Web. 22 Sept. 2010.       <http://www.richardiii.net/barnardsinnspeech.htm>.

Read the following and explain whether each is "Lancastrian" or "Ricardian" -- be sure to quote directly from sections throughout your response:
from Vergil, Polydore. Anglica Historia, Books 23-25. London: J. B. Nichols, 1846.

Because the first passage illustrates Richard not as the victim but as the villain with its harsher view on Richard III, it is a Lancastrian document. Regard these quotes from the passage below and descriptions about them to further understand the reasoning behind this:
o    “…Thinnocent child pullyd owt of his mothers armes. Richard having by this meane obtaynyd almost his hartes desire, convaighed his nephewys from the byshhop of Londons howse unto the Towr…”
§  Using imagery of literally ripping his nephews, Henry V and Richard, from their widow mother’s arms, this quote leads onto to explain that Richard III housed the newhews to the tower of London where they were later mysteriously murder in the same year that Richard III became king. Extracting the power from Henry V and his brother was only for Richard III’s heart’s desire.
o    “And this way his dryft, that, whyle stayng and tarying made the people desyrus of this solemne sight, he, by consultinge from poynt to poynt, might sound and serche out how the nobylytie was affected, saying alway that he did not seke the soveraigntie, but referryd all his dooings to the profyt of the realme. Thus covering and cloking certane days his desire, under the colour and pretence of common welthe…”
§  Richard III ruled only under the pretence that his choices were for the common good; however, they were intended only for his desires. His choices were claimed to be for the realm of nobility, but they were only made to empower himself as king.
o    “…so many matters dyd he so often propone and so few explane, according as a guyltie conscyence ys wont to be of many myndes.”
§  The ruling that Richard III made and proposed was seemingly not explained fully to the people, and people caught on that that it was not a mistake

The second passage is a Ricardian retail of Richard III, clearing up the false fronts that historians seemingly put against him. Here are quotes from Horace Walpole’s passage that argue the character of Richard III.
                                                                                                                                                                                   
§  “With regard to the person of Richard, it appears to have been as much misrepresented as his actions. “
o    This opening to the report informs that ideas about Richard III are greatly askew. Not only his physical appearance, but also his actions have seemingly been exaggerated and drawn falsely.
§  “…had Richard been a little, crooked, withered, hump-back'd monster, as later historians would have us believe --- and very idly? Cannot a foul soul inhabit a fair body? The truth I take to have been this Richard, who was slender and not tall, had one shoulder a little higher than the other…”
o    This is a description of Richard in a Ricardian way, in which his characteristics are softened around the edges to not make Richard sound physically normal. Also, it affirms that the deformation of Richard III was the fault of Tudor historians against Richard III.
§  “…a defect, by the magnifying glasses of party, by distance of time, and by the amplification of tradition, easily swelled to shocking deformity; for falsehood itself generally pays so much respect to truth as to make it the basis of its superstructure.”
o    This quote again blames the public and the historians for gradually increasing the ghastly characterture of Richard III. Supposedly, the truth about Richard III was made on the basis of falsehood against his character.


Part III: The Battle of Bosworth Field


Please read the following text and write two poems of your own in response, taking the point-of-view of Richard III in the first and Henry Tudor in the second. Each poem must be at least 250 words in length; style is completely your choice. Be sure to base your poem on historical sources and footnote each line or verse in your poem that corresponds to a source.


The Ballad of Bosworth Fielde Text from Bishop Percy's Folio Manuscript. Ballads and Romances, ed. J.W. Hales and F.J. Furnivall, 3 vols. (London, 1868), III, pp. 233-59. http://www.r3.org/bosworth/ballad2.html


Richard III

A crippled man
With a crooked collar
Small and hunched
With a grievous squalor[1]


Richard was this
Richard was ambitious
Richard was eager
He wanted the lavish[2]

On the death of Edward
And his sons’ succession
For Richard, Lord Protector
Degrading young power was his transgression[3]

Nephews sent to the Tower
By Richard with Hasting’s assistance
Two deaths transpired
Edward V and young Richard lost their existence[4]

Succeeding was the death of Hastings
In conspiracy he was accused of indulging
Declaring Henry VI marriage illegitimate
Richard’s power began bulging[5]

At Westminster Abbey
In 1483
Richard was crowned
King on top of his false debris

From ’83-‘85
Richard ruled
Until invaded by Henry
So together a troop Richard pulled[6]

Market Bosworth, Leicestershire
The troops intersected
Richard’s troops outnumbering
And with militant strategy he hoped Henry deflected[7]

Richard’s troops split to three
Earl of Oxford assisted in command
Tudor publicity ready to regard
Lord and Sir Stanley picked a side to stand

Richard gambled
Kill Henry he was trying
Yet Stanley leapt to Henry’s aid
And stabs to Richard were applying[8]

So Henry was crowed
Upon 1485 at Crown Hill
The Plantagenet at end
 So Tudor accepted the throne he would fulfill

It was a battle of great severity
concentrated King Richard it was upon
Richard lost his life and his obsessive power
And his dynasty would no longer go on

A great war he lost
Pierced with numerous mortal wounds
Yet valiantly he fell
So brave his self-worth was attuned[9]

And now the new soul Henry
Will begin the Tudor reign
And Richard will mark the end
Of the great Yorkist fame

Henry Tudor

Tudor was his name
Earl of Richmond he was
And half brother of Henry VI
A brother to an ill-fated king t’was[10]

Early life was tumultuous
In exile he sat
Until Bosworth Field prevailed
And Henry went up to bat

Yet before his kingship granted
King of France Henry did then empower
Until England’s rule was in need for him to replace
And his parliament aspirations would publically flower[11]

Now King Henry Tudor
Married Elizabeth of York
Adjoining rival families
To lessen political torque[12]

These strategies were appreciated
Yet Ricardian considered himself
Personally unsuccessful
A secretive and introverted King of wealth[13]

And in Ricardian alike
Henry was remembered to have fled
First up to Crown Hill
To make sure that monster Richard was dead[14]

Fortunately, Henry’s proclaim to the end of the war
Brought support from his people to him
Though his power was achieved by relatives extended
For a stable government was his covenant to them

In Lancastrian terms
Each Yorkist endeavor suppressed
And the rival house was quelled
So his power did not regress[15]

Every where
Every time
Every ultimate situation
Henry’s majestic rule he held prime

Peace was his venture
Yet war was he adept
Great consequence to violence he gave
Because just he stressed was kept[16]

Resentment was given by nobility
Henry’s greed was congruent to his predecessor
And inside him it ridiculed
Yet his truthfulness and integrity seemed lesser[17]

He was remarkable in turn
West Minster Abbey he rebuilt
And Richmond Place he beautified
Beginning the renaissance tilt.[18]





[4]Jeremy Potter, Good King Richard? an account of Richard III and his reputation (1983), p. 258.
[5]5Good King Richard? an account of Richard III and his reputation (1983), p. 258.
[6]7Kendall, pp.162-63
[7]Good King Richard? an account of Richard III and his reputation (1983), p. 258.
[8]Foss, P J, 1990, The Field of Redmore: The Battle of Bosworth 1485
[10]Henry VI, Part III, (III, iii, 155-160) and (V, vi, 71-79).
[11]Hay, D (trans), 1950, The Anglica Historia of Polydore Vergil
[13]15Michael Taylor, Henry VI, Part One (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 12-13
[14]Michael Taylor, Henry VI, Part One (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 12-13
[15]"thePeerage.comPerson Page 10187". Retrieved 25 October 2007.