Tuesday, December 14, 2010

REVIEW

QUICK REVIEW
  • 16th century, France enters into crisis with disease and the rise of people questioning the validity of church hierarchy
  • state is a secular thing, religion and faith
  • rising merchants resented that the church ran all the political and economic activities within the state
  • capitalism did not exist
  • large families and the church ran economics
  • many reformers who were open in criticism of the church for their economic activities
  • peasantry in england,italy,  france, and germany changed positions- began to revolt against political economic and social authority
  • martin luther comes along-1483-1546- son of middle class family and became augustinian munk
  • as a monk within augustinian community-issued attack on sale of indulgences
  • he was not an outsider, he was an insider-a monk 
  • 1517-posted 95 thesis on church doors in Littenberg
  • began Protestant reformation
  • appealed to people who resented corruption of catholic clergy
  • seemed open to Luther's message
  • Nobility in Germany resented the land held by the church and the peasants saw Luther as a champion of social reform
  • outside germany, Luthers ideas also had a major impact
  • in guiding thought of john calvin
  • John Calvin was a moralist-lust must be restrained, social life must be regulated
  • ethic of calvinism was ethic of self control
  • Calvin put forth idea that overwhelming authority of human beings are damned by God's will
  • very moralists and religious theology
  • have greatest influence in n. euro
  • Geneva Switz- calvinist stronghold
  • england-reformation tied up with protestants
  • french-Hugeunots
  • Jesuits try to combat protestant heresy with missionary work
  • in Spain inquistiion enlarges its activities
  • cataloged the Index of Forbidden Books- among were Galiuleo's writings
  • adopted at the fifth lateran council of 1515 confirmed by Council of Trent
  • Index of Forbidden Books not taken down until 1966
  • smashed the midevil synthesis of chirsitain matrix where church is apart of everything
  • hope of religious unity was impossible
  • church shattered
  • rise in Folk religion and witchcraft-reaction agaisnt that
  • protestantism becomes fragmented into numerous sects
  • power of monarchs increases
  • the church becomes less of a all-encompassing universal cultural org. to a poltiical org.
  • Pope is like a king
  • 1560-1715-Europe witnessed onyl 30years of religion peace
  • major war is 30 years war
  • 1555 peace of Augsburg brought peace and fgerman princes got to choose their principality's religion
  • increased hostilities-catholics tried to allie with catholics and protestants tried to ally with protesants
  • idiological allianaces-increase of alliances in religions
  • 30 years war began in Bohemia
  • peace was shattered when Ferd. II became king of Bohemia
  • he was a zealous catholic
  • feared he would try to make Bohemia Cahtolic
  • revolt against imperial governers
  • many were throne from the windows of Prog castle
  • crown reverted to Fredrick V
  • extended war to all of Holy Roman Empire
  • cath.-ferdII Prot-FredV- battle from 1618-1620
  • ferdnand used jesuits to try to recathlicise
  • clear victory for catholics, and spanish hapsburgs untervened in protestant states, Cathlic league continued to win battles
  • king of Denmark joined protestants in 1635-more interested in gaining land then helping military
  • Wallentein repelled Danes
  • even Wallenstein with great cahtolic army fell into trap of wanting personal power
  • denmark withdew from 30 eyars war and ferdinand issued Edict of restitituiotn
  • all land and property given back to the catholics
  • 1630-Gustavos adolphus entered the 30 years war
  • protestant-aimed to make a federation of german protestant states
  • won a crucial victory in Saxony
  • amrched against wallenstien
  • in Lutzen
  • Wallenstein killed in the battle
  • swedes win but Gustavos dies in battle
  • swedes have to leave
  • but france sees its opportunity
  • Cardinal Richelieu-decided to accept any allies regardless of their relgion to go agaisnt spain
  • allied with germany and sweden in war against spain
  • spanish hapsburgs defeated by France
  • peace negotiations-peace of Westphalia
  • fragmetnation og HRE
  • switz and Neth become independent
  • France gets Alsas
  • peace of Augsburg and allowed calvinism as a recognized faith
  • war destroyed most of Europe-equivalent to WWII
  • HRE lost quarter of inhabitants
  • 1562-1598 numerous civil wars
  • ex. calvinists grew in numbers and attractive nobility 
  • 1559 Hugeunots constructed a 
  • Guise-ties both to henry and spanish crown
  • Hugeunots appealed for better treatment 1562-war broke out between protestants and catholics
  • attempt to reconcil with marraige of Henry Navarre and Margaret of Valois
  • but it failed
  • catherine de medicci urged catholics to attack the wedding
  • St., Batholomew's day massacre
  • Henry Navarre became Henry IV but only after he convereted to catholocism
  • 1598-Edict of Nantes-liberty ot protestants in france
  • successors of Henry tried to weaken the Edict
  • meanwhile, between Netherland and Spain-1560's Dutch revolted against phillip II of Spain
  • understood commercial greatness of Dutch
  • influence of protestant lead to revolt where Phillip was the loser
  • Dutch incredibly powerful 
  • taxes raised and regments made for armies
  • 1575-protestants under Dutch Leader WIlliam of Orange fought against tyranny of Phillip
  • same time-Scots rebel agaisnt Mary Queen of Scots who is Catholic
  • armada against english
  • terrible failure for spanish
  • defeat and nar complete destruction of armada spelled end for nay complete dominance of Spain
  • England-rise of Stuarts-behead charles in 1649 and cromwell takes over
  • 1570-1516-french becomes dominant power
  • rise of Louis XIV-role of absolute monarch perfected
  • appointed by devine right-lived above the laws
  • econoimcis- defined by mercantilism
  • spanish imports 18,000 tons of silver from new world back to spain
  • caused spanish economy to crash
  • new world exploration for gold increased amount in euro by 20 percent
  • new class-Bourgeoisie-"men of the towns"
  • upper middle class-business people
  • made money in banking and business
  • especially seen in netherlands
  • exploration-goal was to find northwest passage-passage through canada to get to China
  • english establish settlements in plymouth and roenoke
  • catholic colony coming in Maryland
  • first college founded -Harvard in 1636
  • scientific revolution
  • produced many of the great scientific 
  • Capernicus, Bruno, Kepler, Tycho Brahe, Galileo, Robert Hooke, Robert Boyle, Edmond Hailee, Isaac Newton-LOOK UP FOR MIDTERM
  • philosophers- Descartes, John Locke, Francis Bacon, thomas Hobbes, leibiez, spinoza-LOOK UP FOR MIDTERM
  • Witchcraft-1660-lengthy treadition of witchcraft in europe
  • religious preacticies, medicinal parctiices
  • coutnry folk
  • while witches in general were suspicious, they carried on for a long time by themselves
  • could trace all the way back through pagon practices in europe
  • europeans lived with it
  • changed in 17th century-intense heat brought about by religious wars
  • 2 tyupes of witchraft
  • one had to do wtih healing and fortune-telling
  • also witchcraft of demonology-people considered witches who were brigning up and conversing with evil spirits
  • not all witches who did one also practiced the other type
  • many kinds of witches-still are
  • church entered into a bond with satin and thye were working against God and the church
  • church claimed that witches held secret meetings
  • tried to persecute witches for heresy
  • by 17th century-relgiious wars waged on and persecution for heresy became feasrs
  • church spread many fears about the witches claiming that it was apart of a diabolical plot to overthrow the church
  • withces were small organizations
  • book- Malleus maleficarum the Witch Hammer- a book on how to written by two dominican firerers
  • writers-Heinrich Cramer and James Springer
  • By 16th century-church went out of its way to make a relation between women and witchcraft
  • # of accusations agaisnt women outweighed accustaions agaisnt men 3:1
  • 1650-ish---as many as 15,000 people tried for witchcraft
  • at least 10,000 executed by being burned at the stake
  • women were the quote "weaker vessel"
  • women were weaker and therefore more vulnerable to temptation
  • practice of witchcraft turns into women working for satin who must be killed
  • Burning Times/ witchcraft craze began to die down
  • because reformation triggerede intellecual bakclash where people 
  • great backlash against religious fanatiscism
  • against wars in europe
  • produced an atmosphere that implied there was reason to figuring out the world
  • fanatiscims that ended in war did not fit into people civilized minds
  • leads into the ENLIGHTENMENT
  • in enlightenment-goal was to bring faith itno accordance with reason
  • by around 1700, elites in nobility had hired astronologers 





No comments:

Post a Comment