Thursday, December 9, 2010

Final Draft Free Response 1


Galileo was a revolutionary scientist of the seventeenth century who was considered a father of the scientific revolution. His work with astronomy, physics, and methodology are still used today and opened many pathways for future scientists beyond Galileo; even though, much of his work was not readily accepted by the Europeans of his era. Previous to Galileo was Nicholas Copernicus' who inspired Galileo's defense  of Heliocentric science against the church. Galileo's contemporary, Johannes Kepler, also exceeded the boundaries of European knowledge in astronomy and worked along with Galileo on the budding telescope. Galileo went through numerous court hearings for the radical character of his astronomical ideas that were contradictory to the biblical beliefs of the Catholic Church in the seventeenth century. These ideas found with Galileo's improvement of the telescope proved unavoidable realities on the universal existence that were being unfurled by many scientists of the time period. Numerous contemporaries to Galileo were coming up with similar innovations because of the new tools at their reach.  Such scientific ideals as Galileos' are considered superlative by many of today's scientists because the notions sparked an inducement of scientific truths into Europeans societies. Galileo's ideologies supporting heliocentric science were contradictory to the geocentric theologies of the church in the seventeenth century; but truthfully,  his revolutionary ideas diminish in innovation in that  it was due time for such concepts to be determined in Galileo's era of scientific development .

Along with a few other European scientists, Galileo was apart of the scientific revolution, where there was a great improvement in physics, astronomy, mechanics, methodology, etc. Galileo, namely, was noted for his inventive ideas in astronomy, physics, and methodology. In 1609, Galileo produced an improvement of the telescope after hearing of its invention in Holland. With this telescope, Galileo observed the four phases of a moon of Venus, he better explained the surface of the moon, that the milky way is a cluster of starts, and many other astronomical advances that had not been justified. Astronomically, Galileo also proved that the solar system was not geocentric; the sun was the center of the solar system. This is stated in his Copernican Theory. The Copernican Theory was based off of the ideologies of Nicholas Copernicus who believed that the sun may be the center of the universe in the 14th century. Therefore, the idea of the heliocentricism was seemingly magnificent news to the church of the seventeenth century; however, it had been an unpublished idea for three centuries. The telescope, such as the one that Galileo constructed, was the tool to prove Copernicus' idea, and Galileo was the first to do so. It is true that the sun is the center of the universe, and it was Galileo Galilee and his telescope that formulated the proof of heliocentric science in the midst of the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century.

From the time of Galileo's existence to today, scientists have been working to prove scientific ideas that often have a connection to Galileo's findings. Galileo came up with the a better telescope to observe the moon, and today people walk on the moon. Also, through the discovery of the sun as the center of the solar system, people have further represented the celestial characteristics of each planet. Galileo's ideas have expanded into the thoughts of many proceeding scientists, but unlike today, the public of the seventeenth century confronted science based on the knowledge of the church. Therefore, when Galileo came up with new ideas that disproved the church and bible stories, the proven realities of Europe were not readily accepted. In Galileo's Copernican theory, he solidified that the sun was the center of the universe. This went against the church's theology and condemned Galileo with Heresy. These astronomical ideas that Galileo did not give up on granted Galileo lifelong house arrest. It was here, however, that Galileo formulated new ideas to get published for the public, even though Galileo was forbidden from the church. Galileo's ideas demonstrated the reality that the public was not believing. Europeans of the seventeenth century were strictly bound to the church and were not relatively knowledgeable of spacial realities in relation to biblical teachings. With this, Galileo's proven ideas shaped a new reality that seemed advanced because the ideas of the public were theologies preached by the clergy. It was through numerous court confrontations that Galileo had to withstand to prove the severity of his confidence in his ideologies.

Galileo's ideas concerning Heliocentric science and the improvements on the telescope were radical to the public, but to the fathers of the scientific revolution, they were previously formulated ideas. Nicholas Copernicus began the Scientific Revolution with the publication of the text On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres just before his death. This text was the spark of the revolution that included a heliocentric model that theorized the independence of earth from other celestial occurrences. In this formulation, Copernicus wrote that the earth is one of many planets that individually rotates around the sun in one year and turns on its axis in one day. The sun is a fixed entity approximately in the center of the universe, celestial entities travel in circular pathways, there are three motions to the earth and the other planets, and earth is relatively close to the sun in relation to stars and other planets. Here, all ideas of heliocentric science had been structured for Galileo, and Galileo was the man who defended the Copernican theory in front of the Roman Church almost a century later. Galileo defined heliocentricism, but he did not originate the ideas as Copernicus had many formulated before him. Also a contemporary of Galileo was Johannes Kepler who was a noted astrologer of the seventeenth century. Kepler crafted his rendition of the refracting telescope that was an improvement of Galileo's previous design. Galileo's telescope helped to define the surface of the moon and the shape planets in his defense of the Copernican theory; however, Kepler's design allowed for a wider field of view with the convergence of light rays. Through this telescope, Kepler could view objects at a much greater magnification with a clear measurement of the distance between spacial objects. The telescope was first introduced in the Netherlands in 1608, the Galilean telescope was developed in 1609, but Kepler's design evolved two years later with numerous advancements. Kepler's design was used for another century before another notable improvement was published. Galileo's ideas in astronomy were postulated by former scientists and some were reproved by his contemporaries.


Galileo founded numerous theories and inventions in the scientific revolution; however, his ideas compete equally with his contemporaries. In the seventeenth century, when the scientific revolution began, the spark of scientific innovations unfolded the truth of space. Galileo's ideas in this era note him as being a father of the revolution; however, specifically his works with astronomy, where made with the accompaniment of former astronomers or were improved by his contemporaries. The ideas got Galileo into much trouble in his time, they laid out the reality of space, and they helped future scientists to create ideas. To scientists of the same era, though, the ideas were on the verge of pervious publication. Seventeenth century Europe was educated on scientific ideas that were not all justified until the scientific revolution that Galileo took part in. Galileo was able inform his generation about heliocentric science and he illustrated new celestial objects with his telescope, but Copernicus and Kepler were making similar notions at earlier times and in more complex fashions. 

1 comment:

  1. You say: "Galileo's ideas demonstrated the reality that the public was not believing." But how could you give such a blanket statement without even citing a single source from the so-called 'public'?

    Furthermore, you go on to write that Europeans of the 17th century were bound to the church; however, this is only (partially) true of Catholics.

    These are examples of making blanket statements that are both difficult to support and easy to refute. A definite trap many find themselves in when writing about history.

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