Tuesday, November 16, 2010

oliver cromwell

  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/civil_war_revolution/cromwell_01.shtml
  • a unique ruler
  • only nonruler to ever hold the position of lord protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland
    • He played a leading role in bringing Charles I to trial and to execution; he undertook the most complete and the most brutal military conquest ever undertaken by the English over their neighbours; he championed a degree of religious freedom otherwise unknown in England before the last one hundred years; but the experiment he led collapsed within two years of his death, and his corpse dangled from a gibbet at Tyburn. He was - and remains - one of the most contentious figures in world history (BBC).
  • grandson of Thomas Cromwell-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_cromwell
  • oliver's father unfortunately was the youngest and only inherited a small amount of his grandfather's wealth
  • tried to emigrate out of england to conneticut but was stopped by the government in 1634
  • became a radical in his religion of puritanism

  • member of parliament
  • 1640-42- Cromwell was a "visible and volitile" member of parliament
  • wanted power in the military-was against absolute ruling
  • spent most of his years in the army
  • when he came to parliament he denounced parliamentarian generals for not using religious radicals who had a drive for victory rather than the negotiating peacemakers that they were sending out in war
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Model_Army
  • served in new model army until 1647 when he was appointed to Luitenant General
  • in 1647-48 Cromwell proposed to the King a preposition that would require political allies to be accepted as ministers and give religious freedom to Protestants-
    • this brought upon difficulties with the calvans of england who wanted ot make the church of england prepertyrian
    • the king fell apart on the orders and just started a second civil war

  • soldier 1642-1651
  • little previous experience
  • spectacular
  • 1642- captain
  • 1643-colonel
  • 1645-9 lutienenant general of new model army
  • Lord General for the campaigns in Ireland (1649-50) and Scotland (1650-1) (BBC).
  • organized for great support for his troups-civilian support
  • took part in five out of the ten major battles of the english civil wars
  • parlamentarian
  • his role in the victory at marston moor was crucial in 1644
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marston_Moor
  • had a wonderous ability to insirt self-beleif in his men
  • wenr thorugh some struggle with unifying his troups but when the second wind of war occurred because Charles I allied with the Scots, Cromwell took the main part fo the battle and crushed the royalist troups and pacifyed the rebellions going on South wales
  • 1649- sent to ireland 
    • to confirm it under english conrtol
    • to confiscate the rebels who were against 40% of the land being turned over to protestant rule
  • over 20,000 ireish killed in the advance-all catholics
  • then he made an even messier massacre at wexford
  • towns surrendered to him after this
  • fully defeated the royalists and was thought to become king

  • statesmen 1651-1658
  • "But his deepening irritation with its self-serving and sloth in developing long-term solutions led him to lose patience in April 1653 and to use military force to disband the Parliament and to establish a 'parliament of saints', the 140 godliest men Cromwell could find whose task it was to devise a constitution that would reflect gospel values and would teach the people the responsibilities of freedom - how to turn from the things of the flesh to those of the spirit." (BBC).
  • this was too wishful of thinking however
  • people wanted him to become a constitution monarch where he could develop a paper constitution
  • not against monarchy just against Charles
  • wanted religious freedom
  • was lord protestor however- much power
  • religious freedom with Cromwell-anyone and everyone could worship quietly
  • this was a remarkable period of religiou freedom
  • wanted to build a great commonwealth-raised taxes
  • imprisoned royalists who were trying to overrule his regime

  • assesment
  • buried at westminster abbey
  • known for his achievement of religious freedom



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