Wednesday, November 3, 2010

Kaplan Chapter Three Key Terms

1) Roman Catholic Church- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Catholic_Church it is the world’s largest Christian church with over a billion people members of it. It’s mission is to spread the gospel’s word and that of Jesus Christ

2) Eastern Orthodox Church: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Orthodox_Church; Officially called the Orthodox Catholic Church; 2,000 years ago, it considers itself to be the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church  established by Jesus Christ and his Apostles; Its goal is to continually draw near to God throughout life; It considers other churches to be heretical.

3) Crusades - a series of religiously sanctioned military campaigns waged by much of Roman Catholic Europe, particularly the Franks of France and the Holy Roman Empire. The specific crusades to restore Christian control of the Holy Land were fought over a period of nearly 200 years, between 1095 and 1291. Other campaigns in Spain and Eastern Europe continued into the 15th century.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crusades

4) Bubonic Plague(Black Death)- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bubonic_plague- a deadly pandemic that peaked between 1348-1350. The plague killed about the third of Europe’s population- between 30 and 60% of it. The disease was transported through fleas that were often on rats and other animals.  Within eight days four out of five people will die after inducing the disease. Symptoms include: High fever, purple rash patches, diarrhea, throwing up blood, and a respiratory collapse.

5) Gunpowder- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gunpowder- it is  mixture of sulfur, charcoal, and potassium nitrate. It is also known as black powder and it is classified as a low explosive.

6) Medici- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Medici - was a political dynasty that gained power from banking under Cosimo De Medici. Their bank was the largest in Europe and their political power was located in Florence.

7) Oligarchies- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oligarchies a form of power structure in which power effectively rests with a small segment of society that is determined by royalty, wealth, family friends, or military control. They are tyrannical and rest all of their works on the shoulders of the slaves.

8) Condottieri - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Condottieri; Foreign mercenaries soldier leaders, who contracted by the Italian city-states and the Papacy, from late Middle Ages and throughout the Renaissance; Condottiero means "contractor" in Italian.

9) New Monarchies
Tudors- The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor was a prominent European royal house     of Welsh origin that ruled the Kingdom of England and its realms, including the Lordship and Kingdom of Ireland, from 1485 until 1603. Its first monarch was Henry Tudor.     http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tudor_dynasty
Valois - a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty, succeeding the House of Capet as kings of France from 1328 to 1589. A cadet branch of the family reigned as dukes of Burgundy from 1363 to 1482.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Valois
Habsburgs -

10) Humanism- liberal arts
    • coutiers- the people in the nobility within the court of the princes
    • ex. balsassare Castiglione- a noble born into a very pretigious family
    • wrote a book about how to be the proper noblemen
    • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humanism


11) Renaissance man- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polymath- a well educated person who excels in many subjects and fields.

12) Perspecitive- is the way objects appear to the eye based on their spatial attributes and the position of the eye relative to the objects http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perspective_%28visual%29

13) Leonardo da Vinci-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonardo_da_Vinci  He was a painter, sculptor, architect, musician, scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, geologist, cartographer, botanist, and writer. He is considered to be one of the greatest painters of all time as well as one of the most diversely talented people of all time.

14) Michelangelo - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MichelangeloMichelangelo; Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni; A painter, sculptor, architect, poet, and engineer during Renaissance; Leonardo da Vinci was his rival and fellow Italian; Best-documented artist of the 16th century; Pieta and David were the two of his best-known works; sculpted before he turned thirty.

15)Frescoes: Mural paintings done on plaster walls or ceilings      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frescoes   


16)Madonnas- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madonna_(art) paintings prompts, popular in the Italian Renaissance, of the the Madonna. The most popular was the Madonna and Child by Raphael Sanzio. At this time, however, religious paintings were declining as secularism and paganism peaks in popularity during the Renaissance.

17)Raphael Sanzio- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raphael_Sanzio- A painter and architect of the high renissance. Better known as Raphael. With Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci he forms the traditional trinity of great masters during this period.

18)Pieta- is Christian art depicting the Virgin Mary cradling the dead body of Jesus.  It is a sculpture and the word means pity.   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pieta

19)Filippo Brunelleschi- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filippo_Brunelleschi one of the foremost architects and engineers in the Italian Renaissance. All of the principal works of his are in Florence, Italy.

20)Dante Alighieri - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dante_Alighieri; Commonly known as Dante; An Italian poet of the Middle Ages; Born in Florence; died and buried in Ravenna; His work, Divine Comedy, is considered the greated literary work composed in the Italian language and a masterpiece of world literature; Known as "the Supreme Poet" in Italy

21)Francasco Petrarch: A humanists who wrote sonnets and referred back to the Dark Ages http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francesco_Petrarca

22)Giovanni Boccaccio notable humanist of the italian Renaissance and writer of the Decameron. He was a poet who wrote in the Italian vernacular and wrote his novel on how to be mannerly towards women. From the early renaissance. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giovanni_Boccaccio

23)Baldassare Castiglioni http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baldassare_Castiglione- was an Italian courtier, diplomat, soldier, and a Renaissance author.

24)Niccolo Machiavelli-Was an Italian philosopher and writer based in Florence during the Renaissance. He was a founder of modern political science and wrote The Prince.  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niccol%C3%B2_Machiavelli

25) Christian humanists- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_humanist people who believe that human freedom and individualism are natural parts of the Christian doctrine. There was an explosion of increased faith during the Renaissance because of a greater belief in the capabilities of man.

26) New universities - In Northern Renaissance, education became the key; New universities are built in Spain, France, Britain, Scandinavia, and Germany; Between 1386-1506 fourteen universities were established in Germany; Most important was Wittenberg, founded in 1502; No new universities are established in Italy in the 15th century

27) Fugger: A family of bankers in the 15th and 16th century in who were known as replacing the Medicis http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fugger

28) Thomas More-English lawyer, humanist, philosopher, author, and statesmen of the Italian renaissance. Important counsellor of  Henry VIII and Lord Chancellor at the end of his life. Considered a saint in the Catholic Church. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_More

29) Brothers and Sisters of the Common Life: A Roman Catholic religious community formed in the 14th century   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brethren_of_the_Common_Life

30) Flemish Masters-were masters of the oil medium and used it to primarily portray a robust and realistically detailed version of the world around them. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/209989/Flemish-art

31) New Monarchies:
Tudors- The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor was a prominent European royal house of Welsh origin that ruled the Kingdom of England and its realms, including the Lordship and Kingdom of Ireland, from 1485 until 1603. Its first monarch was Henry Tudor.   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tudor_dynasty

Valois - a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty, succeeding the House of Capet as kings of France from 1328 to 1589. A cadet branch of the family reigned as dukes of Burgundy from 1363 to 1482.    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Valois

Habsburgs - Important royal house of Europe from which all elected Holy Roman Emperors and rulers of Austria and Spain came  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Habsburg 

32) Star Chamber - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Star_Chamber; An English court of law established by Henry; set up to ensure the fair enforcement of laws against prominent people; a very powerful court;

33)  Inquisition: Institutions that fought against heretics within the Roman Catholic Church   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inquisition

34) Holy Roman Empire- a realm that existed for about a millennium in Central Europe, ruled by a Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes. In its last centuries, its character became quite close to a union of territories.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holy_roman_empire

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