Thursday, November 11, 2010

Holy Roman Empire

  • made up of principalities parts of itlay, austria, and primarily germany
  • comprised of about 300 independent principalities
  • religion- in 1555- there is a peace trearty called the peace of augsburg
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peace_of_Augsburg
    • right to each german prince to determine religion of his own principality
  • problem with this- people had no choice over their relgion because they could not move out of a principality-catholic or lutheran
    • 300 principalities like this in germany
  • a. as was said- it only allowed for catholics and lutherans
    • calvanits cannot practice
  • different unions made 
    • the protestant union and the catholic union
  • during this time protestants made a lot of gains in austria
    • individual princes who were lutheran
    • biggest dynsaty was the hapsburg family
    • hapsburg were catholic
  • BEGINNING OF 30 YEARS WAR
  • allies of these groups
    • french- most interested that germany itself had a strong cohesive, stable whole to trade and have diplomacy with. it did not matter if it was catholic of protestant; they just wanted stable neighbors. French sided with protestant gains eventhough they were catholic
    • scandanavian powers are lutherans- side with protestants
  • in 1618, war breaks out between the protestant unoin and catholic league- 30 years war
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/30_Years_War
  • four phases of war

    • 1618-25 BOHEMIAN PHASE
    • DANISH PHASE 25-1629
      • here king Christian IV of Denmark with support of Dutch and English intervene to support the protestants
      • dutch are calvanists in n. netherlands
      • Christian IV is lutheran ruler of Denmark
      • vs.  armies lead by general Albert of Wallenstein
      • wallenstein kicks butt-he destroys protestant forces
    • cathlics are are winning 
    • Edict of Restitution resores to catholics anything they had lost to the protestants 
    • SWEDISH PHASE 1620-35
      • protestants are dutch and french allies; turn to mega king in Sweden by the name of GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS-http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustavus_Adolphus_of_Sweden
      • he is big and bold and brash and he is here to kick butt-he does
      • defeats wallenstien's forces
      • importance: defeats the catholics in a series of battles taht prevents them from being able to unify holy roman empire as catholics
    • FRENCH PHASE- 1635-1648
      • Gustavus dies and france sees that the protestants need reinforcements
      • french go to war
      • now the french, dutch, and left over sweeds in massive war against catholic germany
      • leads of peace of westphalia
        • all parties involved send all diplomats to come to a conclusion
        • germany, fence, seddwne, dutch, and pope all meet
        • provisions-each of the indpendent german principalities have the right to conduct their own diplomacies and peace treaties-
        • rulers are allowed to establish religion and calvanism is accepted
        • two things are formally recognized for first time: independence of dutch republic; and the neutrality of switzerland (continues to this day)
  • no one's sides wins the war
  • treaties made help construct modern europe
  • alsace-French banish a part of it
  • swedes get area around Baltic Sea
  • consequences- 
    • 1/3 of german people died in war-like the black death
    • does nothing to unify germany-loose amalgamation of principalities
  • france has most success and becomes dominate european power

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