Monday, November 29, 2010

The Restoration 1660-1688

cromwell dies
his son tries to claim power but he was not a strong leader like his father
oliver cromwell is lord protector from 1649-1660
Chalres II brought out of exile for restoration

  • cromwell was a complete novice when he first went to war
  • became driving force of the protestant army
  • cromwell was very militant leader
  • levellers and diggers are out of hand
  • Cromwell felt England was the promise land
  • cromwell felt he was working for god
  • wanted to assemble a republic of saints
  • 1655-cromwell told major generals to take righteousness the town

become knowledgeable of

Explain how the trials and tribulations of Galileo pointed towards the future of Europe while at the same time demonstrated the realities of his own time.
Galileo's trials and tribulations
Predict how they will effect Europe

Tuesday, November 23, 2010


Peace of Augsburgin Holy Roman Empire
1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler
Princes had the choice between Catholicism and Lutheranism...No Calvinism
Hapsburg FamilyControlled Austria, Hungary, and parts of the Holy Roman Empire. They stayed in power over 700 years (until WW1)
Catholic dynasty of Spain
Elected Holy Roman Emporers between 1438 and 1740
rulers of Autrian and Spanish empires
want to reverse protestant gains on the HRE in the 30 years war.
30 years war(1618-1648) This Bourbon vs. Habsburg War resulted from a conflict between the Protestant Union and the Catholic League in the Holy Roman Empire.
held mostly in present day Germany
Most destructive war in european History
four phases
1/3 germans die, germany stays ununified, and French become dominant force in Euro.
Bohemian PhaseThe first phase of the Thirty Years' War which culminated in the Catholic victory at the Battle of White Mountain.
1618-1625-in Bohemia
catholics- Ferdinand II
Protestants- Fredrick V
Ferdinand wins; Hapsburg takes control of Bohemia and turns it catholic
Ferdinand IISuccessor to Matthias as HRE. Arranged troops from Milan, Pope, Bavaria - > Bohemia and defeated Frederick V at battle of the White Mountain in 1620. Frederick fled at "winter king" and lost his ancestral lands in Palatine. Ferdinand got himself elected king of Bohemia and took land from Prot. nobles -> to church and Jesuits streamed in - recatholicising Bohemia.
Frederick VHe was the Calvinist elector of the Palatinate to who the Protestant Bohemians rallied around. Eventually his troops would be defeated at the Battle of the White Mountains by a combined Hapsburg-Spanish force.
Danish Phase1625-29, The second phase of the Thirty Years' War in which the Catholic imperial army led by Albert of Wallenstein won a series of major victories against the Protestants.
Christian IV of Denmark leads protestants -lutheran
n. netherlands are dutch calvanists
s. netherlands are catholic
royalists lead by general wallenstien 
catholics win-edith of restitution
edict of restitutionImperial law that prohibited all Calvinist worship and restored Catholic ownership of land stolen by the Protestant Princes of the Reformation.--after danish phase
christian IV of Denmarkdefeated by catholic army in Lubech in danish phase
general Wallensteinwins danish phase for catholics
Roman catholic hired by Ferdinand II and this man buys provisions for his army and tries to carve a kingdom in Europe. He is murdered by Ferdinand II because there were suspicions that he was trying to overtake the land he was supposed to be gaining for Ferdinand II not himself.
swedish phase1629-1635, The third phase of the Thirty Years' War marked by Sweden's entrance into the war under King Gustavus Adolphus; during this phase, the Protestants began to defeat the Catholics on many fronts.
gustavos defeats wallenstein's forces
catholics cannot fully unify HRE as catholic
Gustavus AdolphusThis was the king of Sweden who led a highly disciplined force into Northern Germany and turned the tide against the Hapsburgs in the 30 Years War.
French Phase1635-1648 The fourth and final phase of the Thirty Years' War marked by France's entrance into the war on the side of the Protestants; this gave the Protestants the support needed to defeat the Catholics.
gustavus dies
french, swedes, dutch, against catholic germany
no winner- battle is summoned with the Peace of Westphalia
germany, france, sweden, dutch, and pope must meet to make a conclusion
Peace of WestphaliaPeace negotiated in 1648 to end the Thirty Years' War, Europe's most destructive internal struggle over religion. The treaties contained new language recognizing statehood and nationhood, clearly defined borders, and guarantees of security
provisions: each german principality has right to maje diplomacies and peace treaties, rulers can establish religion and calvanism is accepted
dutch republic independent
switzerland is neutral
Concordat of BolognaThis was the treaty with the papacy and France, where Francis I agreed to recognize the supremacy of the papacy over a universal council. In return, the French crown gained the right to appoint all French bishops and abbots. This treaty was signed as a way for Francis I to make money. This allowed the French to pick their own priests for the churches, as a last resort to save money. (p.489)
between Francis I and Pope Leo X
did little to resolve the reformation in france
francis IThis was the French king who reached an agreement with Pope Leo X and allowed the French king to select French bishops and abbots
valois family
Pope Leo Xbegan to sell indulgences to raise money to rebuild St. Peter's Basilica in Rome; tried to get Luther to recant his criticisms of the church; condemned him an outlaw and a heretic when he would not do so; banned his ideas and excommunicated him from the church
part of concordat of bologna
HuguenotsFrench radical protestants-calvanists
1/10 of french pop
2/5 of half nobility of france
relation to fast chaning German reformation
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre-Roman Catholics traveling in bands kill over 20,000 Huguenots
-Praised by Phillip II of Spain (former husband of Bloody Mary)
1572- French Protestants Henry Navarre and Margaret marry on St. Bartholomew's day in Paris
thousands of Huguenots travel to paris for this
ambushed by french catholics and the medicci-Charles IX and mother Catherine di Medicci
2,000 hungeunots killed; starts civil war in france
Henry Navarrealso henry IV
come in 1559 which begins Burbon dynasty that would lastuntil 1800; protestant but makes catholism official religion of France to put end to civial wars; issues of Edicf of Nates and France unites; dies in 1610
Charles IXKing of France from 1560 to 1574 whose reign was dominated by his mother Catherine de Medicis (1550-1574)
Catherine de' Mediciwife of Henry II, influenced her sons after the end of there father's rein. She placed an alliance with the ultra-Catholics (the militant Catholics), which was led by the second most powerful family in France, The Guise Family. She permitted the Guise Family their own independent army,which they would use to take out the other religions residing within the French Borders. This led to the civil wars in France and also the St. Bartholome's Day Massacre.
French Civil Warlasted 15 years, political fight for succession; wars: vs. guise (catholics) & bourbon (huguenots); elizabeth changed sides; ferdinand - catholic; frederick - protestant;
destroys trade and agriculture
Henry IV of Navarre becomes monarch-huguenot
leader of Hugeunot house of bourbon
1598-navarre ends civil war by converting to cathlocism to grant freedom to Calvanism -edict of Nantes
edict of nantes1598, decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants
religous UNITY
Phillip IIKing of Spain after father charles V gives up throne, 
King of Spain, 1556 - 1598; married to Queen Mary I of England;he was the most powerful monarch in Europe until 1588; controlled Spain, the Netherlands, the Spanish colonies in the New World, Portugal, Brazil, parts of Africa, parts of India, and the East Indies.
battle of lapento 1571
though spain and Netherlands, Phillip tortures and kills all who will not convert to catholicism-high taxes and execution
battle of lepantoa naval battle fought between a Spanish and Venetian fleet and the German navy. The Spanish won. The battle meant that European navies ahd surpassed the Muslims. The Turks could no longer challenge Europeans on international routes.
dutch revoltin netherlands- revolt against spain where 20,000 duthc convert to calvanism as an insult
duke of parma is a peacemaker and is able to settle the riots, the Dutch rebelled against Phillip II because he tried to impose Catholicism in the Netherlands; the Dutch were also motivated by economic factors, since they believed they were being unfairly taxed
Duke of AlbaLead a Spanish army into the Netherlands on orders from Phillip II of Spain. Made a council in the Netherlands and he was known for inspiring terror. His percecution send many fleeing from the Netherlands for safety
made a church court called coundilc of troubles/blood
executed prominent nobles, siexed property, and applied new taxes
dutch escaped to the countryside to drive away from the spanish and looked at the house of orange for help
house of orangeleaders of most of the 7 provinces of the Dutch Republic, favored development of a centralized government with selves as hereditary monarchs
Duke of Parmathe next Spanish leader who arrived in the Netherlands and played on the Dutch religious differences; split their united front
won back 10 southern provinces
union of utrecht1579 formed in response to southern caths. siding with Duke of Parma. 7 northern provs. led by Holland and Zeeland. In 1581 they declared themselves the United Provinces of the Netherlands aka Dutch Republic/Holland. Previously - total turmoil, now division btwn. N and S over support for PII but both sides wanting to pursue their cause. Eliz sent troops to help keep Parma out of Antwerp. Encrgd. PII to plan invasion of England.
because of war in netherlands from 1581-1609
n.n calvanists versus s,n catholics
england supports Dutch and gives them all supplies for war (Queen Elizabeth)
Spanish Armadathe Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England, ending in disaster, due to the raging storm in the English Channel as well as the smaller and better English navy led by Francis Drake. This is viewed as the decline of Spains Golden Age, and the rise of England as a world naval power.
intending to overthrow Elizabeth I of England and turn england catholic
130 spanish ships left and 67 came back
spain can't handle weather in england and English ships are much lighter and better equipped
Spain never recovers
dutch rises
england takes advantage of Spain's connections in america and uses its resources
Elizabeth IQueen of England from 1558 to 1603, This queen of England chose a religion between the Puritans and Catholics and required her subjects to attend church or face a fine. She also required uniformity and conformity to the Church of England
Henry IIking of France from 1547 to 1559
persecuted Huguenots
PalatinateThe German principality that led the Calvinist quest in the Bohemian Phase of the Thirty Years' War.
defenestration of Prague1618
The hurling, by Protestants, of Catholic officials from a castle window in Prague, setting off the Thirty Years' War.
began revolt against the hapsburg
James Ison of Mary Stuart
begins Stuart dynasty, the first Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1925 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625
becomes king after death of queen elizabeth in 1603
end of tutor and beginning of stuart
believer in divine right of kings-power of monarchy directly from god
quarreled with puritan members of parliament who wanted to purify english church from hint of catholocism
opposed to this preferring hierarchy of bishops present in anglican church
no bishops no king
needed this for control of england
Charles Ibecomes king after James I in 1625
son of James
beleiver in divine right of kigns
in need ot money
agaisnt puritans
needs a supporter from anglican church
petition of right 1628---in return for grants of money, charles I signs law that provides
no one will be compelled to pay any tax or lone without any consent of parliament. king is not alloed to levy tax without approval of parliamebt
no can be put into prison without process of law. cannot put people in tower of london without trial
religion was the most explosive issue
with charles' encouragement , william laud wants to turn church of england into a catholic church that does not follow the pope
opposite of puritan ideals
1639-loud makes a big mistake
tries to impose english book of prayer onto scottish prespertyrian church
riot of scotts-prayer book riot
scots determined that england will not tell them what to do
scots and english go to war
charles desperate to raise money to fight war against the scotts
1640-1648-Long Parliament
chalres recalls parliament into session 
causes constitutional and religious crisis
during this time, parliament goes out of its way to undo royal tyranny from charles I
execute William Loud 
legislate a number of laws to limit royal power
petition of right 1628Stated that the king could not use fored loans on new taxation with out consulting parliment, in return parliment would grant new funds to the king. Charles I eventualy agreed
gives parliament rightful power and it gives Charles money
divine right of kingsthe belief that the authority of kings comes directly from God
high-churchname given in Europe for the 20th century Lutheran movement that emphasizes worship practices and doctrines that are similar to those found within both Roman Catholicism and the Anglo-Catholic wing of Anglicanism (wikipedia).
puritansProtestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
strict protestantism in england
*wished to elimenate the common book of prayer in church of england
*opposed bishops
House of Commonsone of the houses of Parliament including wealthy landowners and rich business leaders that represent the middle class and are elected to office
many were puritans
scottish rebellionengland tries to impose the anglican book of common prayer on scotland - causes rebellion; Charles is forced to call Parliament because he needs new taxes, (1637) The Scottish rebelled in Edinburgh after Charles I and Bishop Laud tried to force their religion on the Scots in the Book of Common Prayer. It was used by Parliament to push its revolutionary agenda on the King.
bishop laudAligned with Charles I. Accused of trying to make the Anglican church too Catholic. Factor leading to civil war.
Triennial Act1641
An Act of Parliament reluctantly agreed to by Charles I (who said it reduced his sovereign powers) which stated that there had to be a parliament of at least 50 days duration every three years.
eliminates bishops and the star chamber court
english civil warCharles I tried to advocate the divine right of kings and bring more absolutist policies to England. He was also seen as bringing too much Catholic influence to the Church of England. War broke out between Parliament's supporters(Roundheads)and the kings's supporters(Cavaliers). Later Charles I was tried and executed in 1649 as a"tyrant,traitor,murderer,and public enemy". Oliver Cromwell,leader of military,ruled England as "Lord Protector" until 1658.
oliver cromwellEnglish military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.
maintained a republic until his death
lord protector of england, ireland, and scottland
almost a monarch
dies in 1658 and his son treis to carry on the republic but cannot hold up
parliament has an election and charles I's son Charles II comes into office
new model armyThe disciplined fighting force of Protestants led by Oliver Cromwell in the English civil war.
also called the ironsides who defeat the cavaliers
interregnumthe time between two reigns, governments, etc.-cromwell lead england as lord protector
held a republic
but ruled as a military dictator
forabde entertainment
english grew weary of puritans
new religious group-the levellers-more equality in property ownershuip and in the franchise
new religious group- the diggers - extremists who desired a communal society
new religious group- the quakers- preached toleration and peaceful living
levellersradical religious revolutionaries-sought social and political reforms, a more egalitarian (equal) society.
equality between servants and nobility
as jesus said-no commandment more important than to befriend god and befriend man
diggersdenied Parliament's authority and rejected private ownership of land
true levellers
equality of women and men
equality of nature and man
leader-gerard Winstanley
quakersEnglish dissenters who broke from Church of England, preache a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania
charles IIKing of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-1685) who reigned during the Restoration, a period of expanding trade and colonization as well as strong opposition to Catholicism
not always well liked by his people but he was supported to end chaos in england
made a secret aggreement with Louis XIV to become catholic in time in exchange for money; meanwhile, test act is enforced by parliament to exclude non-anglicans from military and civil office
dies without heirs-throne went to brother James II
the restorationThis was the re-establishment of the monarchy in England under Charles II. Both houses of Parliament were restored but the religious tensions still were present in England
restored without religious toleration of other groups
test act1673-excluded those unwilling to receive the sacrament of the Church of England form voting, holding office, preaching, teaching, attending universities, ore assembling for meetings, Parliament passed this in response to Charles II's declaration of indulgences; required all military members to swear an oath against transubstantiation.
excluded non-Anglicans from military and civilian offices
Council of TrentThe congress of learned Roman Catholic authorities that met intermittently from 1545 to 1563 to reform abusive church practices and reconcile with the Protestants.
Henry Bourbon(1588-1646) Was going to marry Catherine de Medicis daughter, Margaret, in Paris during August 1572; their wedding turned into a massacre, which he survived; became a Catholic so he could be king of France
same as henry of navarre
society of jesusa Roman Catholic order founded by Saint Ignatius of Loyola in 1534 to defend Catholicism against the Reformation and to do missionary work among the heathen, (The Jesuits) was founded to spread catholic doctrine around the world during the Counter Reformation., Jesuits were the official Catholic response to the reformation
papal index of forbidden booksPublished by the Church to punish heresy. All Protestant writing was included., Church's attempt to stop Protestantism
A first version (the Pauline Index) was promulgated by Pope Paul IV in 1559 (wikipedia).
war of three henry'swar for secular power, between Henry of Navarre, Henry VIII and Henry of guise
henry Navarre capitalized on the repugnant idea ofspanish intervention on the Guise side. King henry's men assasinated Henry of guise, and a catholic monk killed the kings. By default, henry Navarre becomes the first Bourbon monarch of France
as a protestant he cannot enter paris so he issues the edict of nantes to liberate calvanism
apart of the french civil war
valoisFrench Catholic monarchy in power during the French Civil Wars, French Royal Family: major members include Catherine de Medici, Henry II
guise familyFrench family who worked to control Francis II. Family members were members of government and religion such as Duke and Cardinals. The family was known for being militants, main ultra-Catholic family, they had the loyalty of Paris and northern and northwestern France, support from the papacy and support from the Jesuits; main force in French Wars of Religion
Louis XIVking of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715), This French king ruled for the longest time ever in Europe. He issued several economic policies and costly wars. He was the prime example of absolutism in France
african slave tradeAfrican peoples captured and taken as slaves to South America (sugar cane plantations) and North America (cotton plantations)
mercantilisman economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
bullionist economy- a country's wealth was measured in gold and siler
import as little as possible and sell more than the country purchasedx to create a favorable balance of trade and accumlatre gold
self sufficient
guarded trade secrets- skilled craftsment not allowed to emigrate or move
advised that colonies provide resources for the industry of its mother countries 
adds to national wealth
absolute monarchs; absolutismcontrol taxation, militray and religion, a monarch that has complete and unlimited power to rule his or her people
but must keep nobility at hand
theory a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.); coincides with the divine right of kings
come from strong ruling families
had paintings of them to make them appear divine and admirable
thomas hobbesEnglish materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679), wrote "Leviathan" and believed people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish; he also believed only a powerful governemnt could keep an orderly society
Jacques Bossuetadvocate of the divine right of kings, by which their power was absolute and could not be disobeyed., French theologian and preacher who argued that government was established by God to organize society ( Book=Politics Drawn from the Very Words o Holy Scripture)
sullyhenry IV chose councilors from low ranking noble, who were more loyal. this was his chief advisor, a protestant. , French statesman (1560-1641)
Estates GeneralFrance's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution. (p. 585)
Henry IV nevers called is assembly with interference from his body
Louis XIIIson of Henry IV who takes thron after fathers assasination in 1610, king of France from 1610 to 1643 who relied heavily on the advice of Cardinal Richelieu (1601-1643)
son of Marie de Medici
Cardinal RichelieuThis was the man who influenced the power of King Louis XIII the most and tried to make France an absolute monarchy
placed practical politics first
worked for better tax collection
split france into 32 districts
withdrew edict of nantes 
saw poltiical advantage in siding with protestants
Marie de Mediciheaded govt. for child-king Louis XIII, feudal nobles/princes had control of govt., but appointed Cardinal Richelieu to the council of ministers
Louis XIVking of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715)
son of anne of austria
put down personal rule in response to the fronde in 1661...he claimed "l'etat, c'est moi" (the state is me)
expanded military for security
never called the estates general-favored upper class because he could better trust their loyalty
did not fix insufficiency of tax and had to devalue currency and sell titles and office-government appointments
patroned writers, arts and science, and fostered classical style acedemics
withdrew remaining provision of edict of nantes and attempted to crack down on the Jansenists
EXPANSION-encroaching neighbors
anne of austriaDevoutly Catholic regent of Louis XIV.
depended on italian cardinal jules mazarin
jules mazarinBecame a cardinal in 1641, succeeded Richelieu and dominated the power in French government.
rased taxes and caused a responsive revolt of nobility in 1648
the frondea french rebellion that was caused by Mazarin's attempt to increase royal revenue and expand state bureaucracy, caused Louis XIV to distrust the state and turn to absolutism
racineFrench classicist playwright who wrote tragic dramas based on Greek and Roman legend that analyzed the power of love.
moliereFrench classicist playwright who produced popular comedies that exposed the hypocrisies and follies of society.
fostered classical styleestablished acedemic style by louis XIV that taught order, harmony, and hieararchy
jean-baptiste colbertfrench politician employed by Louis XIV who advocated vigorous mercantilism
sponsored development of manufacturing
large areas of free interanl terriffs
five great farms to enhance trade
improved roads and cnals
halped market with expansion of military
supported french trade in N. america
inititated French East india company to compete with english and dutch
improved tax collection
Jansenistsnarrow-minded Catholics that were horrified that the Jesuits preferred to emphasize God's love and mercy rather than fear of death and hell
similar to calvinism
five great farmsThe internal tariff union set up by minister Colbert to increase trade inside France.
william of orangeDutch prince invited to be king of England after The Glorious Revolution. Joined League of Augsburg as a foe of Louis XIV.
franche-comtea province between France and Switz that Louis XIV took after failing to take over spanish netherlands.
then LouisXIV aided Hungarians and Turks to fight against the Hapsburg
War of the League of Augsburgan aggressive war waged by Louis XIV against Spain and the Empire and England and Holland and other states (1689-1697)
between France and an alliance of Louis's Protestants and Catholic enemies...settled by returning everything to its before-war/antebellum status
War of Spanish Successionwas a major European conflict over the succession to Spanish throne. In 1701, Charles II died and had bequeathed all of his possessions to Philip, duc d'Anjou — a grandson of the French King Louis XIV — who thereby became Philip V of Spain. The war began slowly, as the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I of Habsburg fought to protect his own dynasty's claim to the Spanish inheritance. As Louis XIV began to expand his territories more aggressively, however, other European nations (chiefly England, Portugal and the Dutch Republic) entered on the Holy Roman Empire's side to check French expansion.[6] Other states joined the coalition opposing France and Spain in an attempt to acquire new territories, or to protect existing dominions. The war was fought not only in Europe, but also in North America, where the conflict became known to the English colonists as Queen Anne's War, and by corsairs and privateers along the Spanish Main. Over the course of the fighting, some 400,000 people were killed.
euope feared a mega-monarchy of france and spain and went to war to prevent this
grand-alliance-led by william of oragne/william III of england
william died before the end of the war, his allaince held, and france ambitions were checked
treaty of utrecht1713, 1713, ended War of Spanish Succession between Louis XIV's France and the rest of Europe; prohibited joining of French and Spanish crowns; ended French expansionist policy; ended golden age of Spain; vastly expanded British Empire
rococofanciful but graceful asymmetric ornamentation in art and architecture that originated in France in the 18th century
toriessupporters of Charles II
whigsnon-supporters of Charles II
James IItakes throne after brother Charles II dies
openly catholic, This was the Catholic king of England after Charles II that granted everyone religious freedom and even appointed Roman Catholics to positions in the army and government, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1685-1688). The last Stuart king to rule both England and Scotland, he was overthrown by his son-in-law William of Orange
ignored test act, dismissed protestant ministers, declared religious freedom
baptized his son catholic
william and Marywilliam Orange (netherlands) and Mary (james II daughter from first marraige) combined with whig and tory members of parliament to overthrow james and invade england.
no one came to the side to aid James so william and mary traveled across the channel and became William and Mary of England, King and Queen of England in 1688. With them, King James' Catholic reign ended. As they were Protestant, the Puritans were pleased because only protestants could be office-holders.
william created bank of england-bundless line of credit through high class investments
the glorious revolutionIn order to prevent a Catholic Dynasty the English Parliament drove out James II following the birth of his son and replaced him with the protestant Stahoulder of the Netherlands William, and his wife and daughter of James II, Mary II. This was a relativly bloodless revolution. (excepting the Irish Rebellion in which an Catholic coalition of English-Irish-French troops led by James were butchered).
john lockeEnglish philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property. 1632-1704
english bill of rightsKing William and Queen Mary accepted this document in 1689. It guaranteed certain rights to English citizens and declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently. By accepting this document, they supported a limited monarchy, a system in which they shared their power with Parliament and the people.
reaffirmed the test act-allowed dissenters to worship
anglicans remained in church of england
rights to pariliament in financial control
english gentry-moderate and large landowners to controlled gov. thorugh house of commons
protestants now inheret monarchy
Annemary's sister takes crown after william and mary
dutch republicUnited Provinces of the Netherlands-1st half of 17th century was golden age-govt. consisted of organized confederation of 7 provinces each w/ rep. govt.
center of banking and shipping
prosperous agriculture-dairy and tulips
comfortable, pleasantly furnished homes
possibly the finest living in the 1600's
golden age of the netherlandswas a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world.
art patronage through the dutch reformed church
landscapes and seas scapes popular
antoni leeuwenhoek produces microscope
chrsitian huygens improves teleoscope and developed pendulum clocks
scular lifestyle
expanded to cape horn, south americaand settled there in mid 17th cent.
established colony in new amsterdam in n. america and in indonesia
only europeans not excluded from japan when the nation shut itself off from the outside world
dutch protected all relgions so many minorities fleed to republic
did not ever create a colonial empire because little enthusiasm to emigrate to distant colonies
dutch reformed churchUnited Provinces of the Netherlands. The rise of Calvinism here set the stage for a revolt against the Inquisition of King Philip II of Spain
stadholderThis was the name given to the person appointed by the States General to carry out ceremonial functions in a province in the Netherlands
usually head of house of orange
navigation actsLaws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
lead to three indecisive wars between british and dutch 1652-1674
anglo-dutch warsbecause of navigation acts the wars annexed dutch colony of new amsterdam renaming it new york
conflict fully ended when William came into power
balance-of-powerdescribes the pragmatic mechanism exercised by a minor political party or other grouping whose guaranteed support may enable an otherwise minority government to obtain and hold office (wikipedia).
Baldassare Castiglioni was an Italian courtier, diplomat, soldier, and a Renaissance author.
wrote the "Coutier", author of The Courtier which described proper behavior for Renaissance men and women
Niccolo Machiavelli-Was an Italian philosopher and writer based in Florence during the Renaissance. He was a founder of modern political science and wrote The Prince., (1469-1527) Wrote The Prince which contained a secular method of ruling a country. "End justifies the means."
Thomas MoreEnglish lawyer, humanist, philosopher, author, and statesmen of the Italian renaissance. Important counsellor of Henry VIII and Lord Chancellor at the end of his life. Considered a saint in the Catholic Church., He was a English humanist that contributed to the world today by revealing the complexities of man. He wrote Utopia, a book that represented a revolutionary view of society. (p.437)
Brothers and Sisters of the Common LifeGroup in Netherlands, developed outside of Church, practice Modern Devotion (men and women live separately, not monks or nuns), emphasized humility/tolerance/reverence/love of neighbor/duty)
flemish artmasters of the oil medium
Star ChamberAn English court of law established by Henry; set up to ensure the fair enforcement of laws against prominent people; a very powerful court;
new monarchiesCentralized Bureaucracy and professional armies
examples: Charles VII, Louis XI, Henry VII, Ferdinand and Isabella/fund Columbus's mission.
Tailledirect tax on the French Peasantry.Major source of income because tax was very large
Indulgencecertificates sold by the papacy for the forgiveness of sin 
most important thing that Martin Luther was going to fight against
Anabaptistbelieved exclusively in adult baptism. Also believed in a complete separation of church and state
ex. first amendment
PredestinationJohn Calvin believed in this: God has pre-determined all things
including who goes to heaven and hell
politiquestype of ruler: one who puts political necessity above personal belief
ex. Elizabeth
Columbian Exchangetransfer of goods between the Americas and Europe. Named after Columbus
also includes slavery, animal transport, introduction of non-indigenous plants, and disease
Diseases was a huge one
Join-Stock Companybusiness arrangement where the investors raise money for a venture no single one of them could afford.
particularly the English Colonists use to develop colonies in the new wo
intendantsFrench royal officials supervising provincial areas
key part of maintaining the absolute monarchy 
monarch controls these people
frondeSeries of rebellions against royal authority in France