Tuesday, September 28, 2010

Notes on Henry VIII

  • remember to read overview of reformation and Anne Boleyn's downfall at www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/tudors/
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/tudors/reformation_overview_01.shtml
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/tudors/anne_boleyn_01.shtml
  • He is first married to Katherine of Aragon who only produces a female child named Mary.
  • Because of this, Henry divorces and married Anne Boleyn
  • Katherine is executed
  • However, she cannot not produce a male heir either and only produces daughter Elizabeth
  •  Cardenal and Henry realizes that if something happens to Henry then the power would be taken by his first daughter, Mary.
  • Something needed to be done so that Henry could marry some one else
  • Anne is executed and Henry remarries
  • Henry never actually produces a male heir
Extra Notes From the Movie We Watched
  • Cromwell was the Cardinal against Anne
  • his arrest on her only took two weeks to cook up
  • Anne was to be killed
  • Anne had been considered to be possessed by having sex with so many other people including her brother
  • this brought upon Cromwell's ability to arrest and execute Anne
  • beheaded in the bell tower
  • expert swordsman was brought over from France to behead Anne
  • She burst out laughing before death

  •   When news of Anne's execution met the city it was said that the candels in the church spontaneously combusted
  • in 1537, Henry had a new wife Jane of Semour
  • he had a son with her Edward VI
  • but his wife died twelve days later as a result of the childbirth
  • then a remarkable thing happened- the King blamed the English bible for his misfortunes
  • the readings of the bible were banned in the city
  • law was introduced restricting the reading of the bible for church clergy
  • townspeople were lost without the bible
  • dies in the 1440's- leaves line of recession to the girls- they are now his legitimate child
  • Mary was once illegitimated as his child
  • he restores Mary and Elizabeth
  • he married Anne against the rights of the Vatican making the offspring of the divorce and new marraige considered illegitimate 
  • Line of succession- Edward VI, Mary-Catholic sister, Elizabeth-Protestant

  • in 1540 Cromwell had been executed after his scheme with Lutheran's failed
  • Priests again could not marry
  • Core Catholic beliefs turned out to be Henry's too
  • he wanted a national church divorced from Rome but remarried to the English crown
  • he was satisfied with the middle-way that he had found
  • he was the guardian of the temporal and the spiritual realm

  • Edward came after Henry and Mary and Katherine came into power after Henry's death
  • they covered the religious spectrum 
  • but religion would depend of birth, deaths, and marriages
  • Edward had been educated for Protestants
  • Edward was nine years old and was seen as a boy-god who came to set thigns straight
  • all of the customs and ceremonies of the old church were banned 
  • away with the religious guilds and ceremonies
  • no more saints
  • no more artwork-attacked with artwork
  • new prayer brought English into the heart of the church service
  • only one church at the time
  • church was bare to abolish the distance between the priest and his floor
  • first time Pries invited people to communion and used English, it made the people grimace
  • ...How does a nine year old have the ability to come up with these confident ideas??
  • act of uniformity in 1459
  • Mary was Catholic-because Katherine was devout Catholic
  • Elizabeth is Protestant because Anne was in the reformation with Henry
  • challanged to wait for Edward to die childless
  • in 1453- Edward died
  • England's first female ruler since queen Matilda

  • Queen Mary
  • she was raised outside of England
  • her mother, being Katherine, and out of the scene, the family took Mary out of Continental Europe
  • she grew up in France in a strictly Catholic family
  • always an outcast in English society
  • does everything in her power of Monarch to counteract the reformation
  • paint the churches and bring back catholic art
  • goes out of her way to say to the people of England that either they return to the fold or they die
  • a  bitter campaign against heretics and her alliances
  • alliances with Catholic monarchs in Spain and a Castle in Scottland
  • becomes known as the queen of Scotts
  • there is much confusion and political intrigue surrounding the end of Mary's reign and the rise of Elizabeth 
  • there was a plot on Elizabeth's life; however, there was immense support for the rise of Elizabeth and her protestant aspirations
  • finally, convinced that Mary is undermining England through her alliances with Catholic England- she is pushed out and executed for treason against England.              
  • things are about to get really bad- she wants to make church Catholic again
  • religious war against England
  • in 1554 both houses of parliament was corrupted by the children of Henry
  • Mary wanted the restoration of Latin mass
  • Rome forgave them
  • all would be fruitless unless she could produce a Catholic heir 
  • phillip II of Spain
  • Wanted a Catholic Spanish wedding like her mother, yet a Catholic marraige now was not something that could be taken for granted
  • it was a foreign idea
  • Wyatt faught to dethrone Mary but it failed
  • ecstatic, for the first time in her lonely life she had Phillip to rely on
  • she had to destroy the Protestant England and turn it Catholic again
  • burned and killed many ordinary people in Mary's body because they were not Catholic
  • She dies childless- no heirs 
  • Catholic England was doomed

  • Elizabeth came into power with great support from the public
  • when she takes the throne she reinstates her Father's laws
  • abolished Catholic mass and is banished from England
  • an immediate effect-immediate rise of intentions between England and Spain
  • Spain is Catholic and a great political power
  • Spain has a strong army- Pope wants Spain to attack 
  • Elizabeth couldn't help her reign as being stated as a truly English reign
  • she reigns for a very long time
  • once the troubles of the Spanish is done her peace, prosperity, and most importantly a rise of the sense of nationalism with protestantism becomes strengthened
  • Protestant England was back
  • felt that God must have meant for this to happen
  • national identity became an obsession in England
  • catholics were forced to choose between their church and their queen
  • age of great court poets
  • age of Shakespeare
  • Age of exploration and adventure
  • however her reign had its many low points
  • at the beginning of her reign the English army suffers defeat in Scotland
  • England is at great Parole with Spanish Navy at points
  • England becomes cut off from the rest of Europe
  • a real wall if forged between Protestant England and Catholic Spain, France, and Italy

  • Whatever happened to Catholic England-
  • thrown away 
  • a final disaster
  • what was once the national church became a faith on the run

Remember- Mary I of England was Elizabeth's half sister she was not executed rather she had a disease and died relatively young. She was the queen of the Scots. She became queen after her brother Edward VI died. Her official title was queen of England and Ireland, she wanted to return England to the Catholic church. She is the one known as bloody mary-lead the burning campaigns against Protestants. She is considered the Bastard Child. Mary died and Elizabeth came in after.
HOWEVER: Mary Stewart is the Queen of Scotland and she is also called Mary I. She is the Mary of Scotland 


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