Wednesday, December 15, 2010


The War of Spanish Succession, the Treaty of Utrecht, and the European Balance of Power

1. The treaty of Utrecth gave england opportunities to heighten it's power gave England greater access to trade; however, the greatest victor of Treaty of Utrecht was mercantilism. 

Tuesday, December 14, 2010


  • 16th century, France enters into crisis with disease and the rise of people questioning the validity of church hierarchy
  • state is a secular thing, religion and faith
  • rising merchants resented that the church ran all the political and economic activities within the state
  • capitalism did not exist
  • large families and the church ran economics
  • many reformers who were open in criticism of the church for their economic activities
  • peasantry in england,italy,  france, and germany changed positions- began to revolt against political economic and social authority
  • martin luther comes along-1483-1546- son of middle class family and became augustinian munk
  • as a monk within augustinian community-issued attack on sale of indulgences
  • he was not an outsider, he was an insider-a monk 
  • 1517-posted 95 thesis on church doors in Littenberg
  • began Protestant reformation
  • appealed to people who resented corruption of catholic clergy
  • seemed open to Luther's message
  • Nobility in Germany resented the land held by the church and the peasants saw Luther as a champion of social reform
  • outside germany, Luthers ideas also had a major impact
  • in guiding thought of john calvin
  • John Calvin was a moralist-lust must be restrained, social life must be regulated
  • ethic of calvinism was ethic of self control
  • Calvin put forth idea that overwhelming authority of human beings are damned by God's will
  • very moralists and religious theology
  • have greatest influence in n. euro
  • Geneva Switz- calvinist stronghold
  • england-reformation tied up with protestants
  • french-Hugeunots
  • Jesuits try to combat protestant heresy with missionary work
  • in Spain inquistiion enlarges its activities
  • cataloged the Index of Forbidden Books- among were Galiuleo's writings
  • adopted at the fifth lateran council of 1515 confirmed by Council of Trent
  • Index of Forbidden Books not taken down until 1966
  • smashed the midevil synthesis of chirsitain matrix where church is apart of everything
  • hope of religious unity was impossible
  • church shattered
  • rise in Folk religion and witchcraft-reaction agaisnt that
  • protestantism becomes fragmented into numerous sects
  • power of monarchs increases
  • the church becomes less of a all-encompassing universal cultural org. to a poltiical org.
  • Pope is like a king
  • 1560-1715-Europe witnessed onyl 30years of religion peace
  • major war is 30 years war
  • 1555 peace of Augsburg brought peace and fgerman princes got to choose their principality's religion
  • increased hostilities-catholics tried to allie with catholics and protestants tried to ally with protesants
  • idiological allianaces-increase of alliances in religions
  • 30 years war began in Bohemia
  • peace was shattered when Ferd. II became king of Bohemia
  • he was a zealous catholic
  • feared he would try to make Bohemia Cahtolic
  • revolt against imperial governers
  • many were throne from the windows of Prog castle
  • crown reverted to Fredrick V
  • extended war to all of Holy Roman Empire
  • cath.-ferdII Prot-FredV- battle from 1618-1620
  • ferdnand used jesuits to try to recathlicise
  • clear victory for catholics, and spanish hapsburgs untervened in protestant states, Cathlic league continued to win battles
  • king of Denmark joined protestants in 1635-more interested in gaining land then helping military
  • Wallentein repelled Danes
  • even Wallenstein with great cahtolic army fell into trap of wanting personal power
  • denmark withdew from 30 eyars war and ferdinand issued Edict of restitituiotn
  • all land and property given back to the catholics
  • 1630-Gustavos adolphus entered the 30 years war
  • protestant-aimed to make a federation of german protestant states
  • won a crucial victory in Saxony
  • amrched against wallenstien
  • in Lutzen
  • Wallenstein killed in the battle
  • swedes win but Gustavos dies in battle
  • swedes have to leave
  • but france sees its opportunity
  • Cardinal Richelieu-decided to accept any allies regardless of their relgion to go agaisnt spain
  • allied with germany and sweden in war against spain
  • spanish hapsburgs defeated by France
  • peace negotiations-peace of Westphalia
  • fragmetnation og HRE
  • switz and Neth become independent
  • France gets Alsas
  • peace of Augsburg and allowed calvinism as a recognized faith
  • war destroyed most of Europe-equivalent to WWII
  • HRE lost quarter of inhabitants
  • 1562-1598 numerous civil wars
  • ex. calvinists grew in numbers and attractive nobility 
  • 1559 Hugeunots constructed a 
  • Guise-ties both to henry and spanish crown
  • Hugeunots appealed for better treatment 1562-war broke out between protestants and catholics
  • attempt to reconcil with marraige of Henry Navarre and Margaret of Valois
  • but it failed
  • catherine de medicci urged catholics to attack the wedding
  • St., Batholomew's day massacre
  • Henry Navarre became Henry IV but only after he convereted to catholocism
  • 1598-Edict of Nantes-liberty ot protestants in france
  • successors of Henry tried to weaken the Edict
  • meanwhile, between Netherland and Spain-1560's Dutch revolted against phillip II of Spain
  • understood commercial greatness of Dutch
  • influence of protestant lead to revolt where Phillip was the loser
  • Dutch incredibly powerful 
  • taxes raised and regments made for armies
  • 1575-protestants under Dutch Leader WIlliam of Orange fought against tyranny of Phillip
  • same time-Scots rebel agaisnt Mary Queen of Scots who is Catholic
  • armada against english
  • terrible failure for spanish
  • defeat and nar complete destruction of armada spelled end for nay complete dominance of Spain
  • England-rise of Stuarts-behead charles in 1649 and cromwell takes over
  • 1570-1516-french becomes dominant power
  • rise of Louis XIV-role of absolute monarch perfected
  • appointed by devine right-lived above the laws
  • econoimcis- defined by mercantilism
  • spanish imports 18,000 tons of silver from new world back to spain
  • caused spanish economy to crash
  • new world exploration for gold increased amount in euro by 20 percent
  • new class-Bourgeoisie-"men of the towns"
  • upper middle class-business people
  • made money in banking and business
  • especially seen in netherlands
  • exploration-goal was to find northwest passage-passage through canada to get to China
  • english establish settlements in plymouth and roenoke
  • catholic colony coming in Maryland
  • first college founded -Harvard in 1636
  • scientific revolution
  • produced many of the great scientific 
  • Capernicus, Bruno, Kepler, Tycho Brahe, Galileo, Robert Hooke, Robert Boyle, Edmond Hailee, Isaac Newton-LOOK UP FOR MIDTERM
  • philosophers- Descartes, John Locke, Francis Bacon, thomas Hobbes, leibiez, spinoza-LOOK UP FOR MIDTERM
  • Witchcraft-1660-lengthy treadition of witchcraft in europe
  • religious preacticies, medicinal parctiices
  • coutnry folk
  • while witches in general were suspicious, they carried on for a long time by themselves
  • could trace all the way back through pagon practices in europe
  • europeans lived with it
  • changed in 17th century-intense heat brought about by religious wars
  • 2 tyupes of witchraft
  • one had to do wtih healing and fortune-telling
  • also witchcraft of demonology-people considered witches who were brigning up and conversing with evil spirits
  • not all witches who did one also practiced the other type
  • many kinds of witches-still are
  • church entered into a bond with satin and thye were working against God and the church
  • church claimed that witches held secret meetings
  • tried to persecute witches for heresy
  • by 17th century-relgiious wars waged on and persecution for heresy became feasrs
  • church spread many fears about the witches claiming that it was apart of a diabolical plot to overthrow the church
  • withces were small organizations
  • book- Malleus maleficarum the Witch Hammer- a book on how to written by two dominican firerers
  • writers-Heinrich Cramer and James Springer
  • By 16th century-church went out of its way to make a relation between women and witchcraft
  • # of accusations agaisnt women outweighed accustaions agaisnt men 3:1
  • 1650-ish---as many as 15,000 people tried for witchcraft
  • at least 10,000 executed by being burned at the stake
  • women were the quote "weaker vessel"
  • women were weaker and therefore more vulnerable to temptation
  • practice of witchcraft turns into women working for satin who must be killed
  • Burning Times/ witchcraft craze began to die down
  • because reformation triggerede intellecual bakclash where people 
  • great backlash against religious fanatiscism
  • against wars in europe
  • produced an atmosphere that implied there was reason to figuring out the world
  • fanatiscims that ended in war did not fit into people civilized minds
  • leads into the ENLIGHTENMENT
  • in enlightenment-goal was to bring faith itno accordance with reason
  • by around 1700, elites in nobility had hired astronologers 

Thursday, December 9, 2010

Dutch Republic Free Response

                 The Dutch Republic began its ascent to secular success  in the midst of European religious and    political conflict in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The northern provinces of the Netherlands began this  progression with the signing of the Union of Utrecht in 1579, where they promised protect each other from the forces of Catholic king Phillip II of Spain. From then, the revolts in the Netherlands began to settle, and independence emerged in the Dutch Republic. The provinces opted to be civil but established political, religious, and economic independence from each other and the rest if Europe. This proved success until the decline of the Dutch Republic in the eighteenth century. The Dutch Republic's method of sustaining a nation through secularism and independence of provinces was successful, but these methods of success truly contributed to the country's decline; namely, the ultimate lack of nationalism kept the Dutch Republic from maintaining strength against the powers of monarchy and absolutism seen in England and France at the time. 
       In the seventeenth century, nations in Europe were run by a royal family determined the government and clerical status for its populates; the Dutch republic differed.  The Dutch Republic was made up of seven provinces that were run independently of each other, and each with its own stadholder. Each executive of the provinces generally sided with the loose national stadholder, the head of the House of Orange. Until 1795, the independent provinces of the republic sustained their power and protected their citizens through self-sufficiently run court systems. The Dutch Reformed Church was Calvinist, but the provinces accepted the practice of all religions and allowed for the living of a  secular lifestyle. Because of this, many surrounding minorities fled to the republics. The Dutch merchant class ran the regions, and in the period of the Golden Age, the Republic became the worldwide center of banking and shipping. Dutch gold became the international monetary exchange and the provinces created canals and windmill power to enhance their shipping. The fresh style of living that set the Dutch Republic apart from current countries of Europe in the seventeenth century brought enhancements to the success and power of the provinces.
        Success emerged from the lifestyle differences presented by the Dutch republic in the Golden Age of the Netherlands. The independence of the stadholders of each provinces gave flexibility and apparent ease to the stability of the provinces. This mechanism was successful because in the time of military threats, the provinces could condense, but in time of relative peace the provinces could disperse back to their middle class leisures. In the period of the Dutch Republic's Golden Age (c. 1600-1650), religious unrest was occurring in other nearby countries of Europe (1559-1648). These conflicts between ruling Catholic and Protestant powers caused for the displacement and mistreatment of many minority religious groups; hence, the reason why the Dutch Republic had inflated immigration rates. The religious freedom of the Dutch Republic made it a popular place to move to, and its pleasant living styles were admired as well. The large, powerful class of merchant men exceeded the merchant classes in other areas of Europe, and the success of Dutch trade came to dominate Europe in the early seventeenth century. Amsterdam likewise became the worldwide center of trade and banking. The Dutch Republic went on to dominate the oceans with their approximate 10,000 ships and were successful in utilizing Africa for its slaves and land; however, the pleasant living in the Dutch Republic was too inviting for populates to emigrate and establish a colonial empire. The success of the secular and loosely tied provinces of the Netherlands lasted strongly for half of a century.
         In 1651, the Dutch Republic faced its first wind of suppression from competing English forces. Growing mercantilism damaged the Dutch commerce and during the Cromwell era, the Navigation Acts of England were passed so that each import into Europe had to come through English Vessels. Dutch shipping declined because of this, and the Dutch went to war in the Anglo-Dutch wars against England because of this as well. The intensity of power from Louis XIV's absolutism  also drained the Dutch Republic in this time period. Furthermore, the Dutch Republic preserved its existence in alliance with England until the eighteenth century, but the Republic declined against the matchless growing power of England. The strength of the nation was short-lived because of its disperse of powers into smaller fragmented provinces.  France had the reigning of absolutism with Louis the XIV that set up a cushion for damage and rebound, such as with the revoking of the Edict of Nantes. England  tried running as a republic with Cromwell; however, that was short lived by the nation and called for such restoration of monarchy in England that the period after Cromwell's death was also called the Restoration. With the severity of religious and political conflict in seventeenth century Europe, a nation lacking an interconnected, central power of politics and religion  will not be able to hold up against other solid world powers for extended amounts of time.
       The Golden Age of the Netherlands was marked by pleasant standards of living  and freedom of provincial independence, but the era only lasted for 50 years; whereas, the reign of absolute monarchies lasted for centuries in European history. The Dutch Republic was powerful for its time because it was new and secular; it served as a refugee for those minorities singled out by the European religious wars. It was in the right situation at the appropriate period of time, but as religious conflicts settled in Europe and rising powers of France and England enhanced their dominance, the independence of the Dutch provinces was no longer beneficial. With the Republic's success, there came a decline, and that decline overshadows the accomplishments of the Golden Age. In the end, the Dutch accomplishments did not prove to be helpful in conserving the cohesiveness of a republic. The Dutch Republic gained independence in the Union of Utrecht, but the dispersal of its freedoms and choices spread far enough away from the core of the nation so that defense against absolute powers would be affectively retained.  

Final Draft Free Response 1

Galileo was a revolutionary scientist of the seventeenth century who was considered a father of the scientific revolution. His work with astronomy, physics, and methodology are still used today and opened many pathways for future scientists beyond Galileo; even though, much of his work was not readily accepted by the Europeans of his era. Previous to Galileo was Nicholas Copernicus' who inspired Galileo's defense  of Heliocentric science against the church. Galileo's contemporary, Johannes Kepler, also exceeded the boundaries of European knowledge in astronomy and worked along with Galileo on the budding telescope. Galileo went through numerous court hearings for the radical character of his astronomical ideas that were contradictory to the biblical beliefs of the Catholic Church in the seventeenth century. These ideas found with Galileo's improvement of the telescope proved unavoidable realities on the universal existence that were being unfurled by many scientists of the time period. Numerous contemporaries to Galileo were coming up with similar innovations because of the new tools at their reach.  Such scientific ideals as Galileos' are considered superlative by many of today's scientists because the notions sparked an inducement of scientific truths into Europeans societies. Galileo's ideologies supporting heliocentric science were contradictory to the geocentric theologies of the church in the seventeenth century; but truthfully,  his revolutionary ideas diminish in innovation in that  it was due time for such concepts to be determined in Galileo's era of scientific development .

Along with a few other European scientists, Galileo was apart of the scientific revolution, where there was a great improvement in physics, astronomy, mechanics, methodology, etc. Galileo, namely, was noted for his inventive ideas in astronomy, physics, and methodology. In 1609, Galileo produced an improvement of the telescope after hearing of its invention in Holland. With this telescope, Galileo observed the four phases of a moon of Venus, he better explained the surface of the moon, that the milky way is a cluster of starts, and many other astronomical advances that had not been justified. Astronomically, Galileo also proved that the solar system was not geocentric; the sun was the center of the solar system. This is stated in his Copernican Theory. The Copernican Theory was based off of the ideologies of Nicholas Copernicus who believed that the sun may be the center of the universe in the 14th century. Therefore, the idea of the heliocentricism was seemingly magnificent news to the church of the seventeenth century; however, it had been an unpublished idea for three centuries. The telescope, such as the one that Galileo constructed, was the tool to prove Copernicus' idea, and Galileo was the first to do so. It is true that the sun is the center of the universe, and it was Galileo Galilee and his telescope that formulated the proof of heliocentric science in the midst of the scientific revolution of the seventeenth century.

From the time of Galileo's existence to today, scientists have been working to prove scientific ideas that often have a connection to Galileo's findings. Galileo came up with the a better telescope to observe the moon, and today people walk on the moon. Also, through the discovery of the sun as the center of the solar system, people have further represented the celestial characteristics of each planet. Galileo's ideas have expanded into the thoughts of many proceeding scientists, but unlike today, the public of the seventeenth century confronted science based on the knowledge of the church. Therefore, when Galileo came up with new ideas that disproved the church and bible stories, the proven realities of Europe were not readily accepted. In Galileo's Copernican theory, he solidified that the sun was the center of the universe. This went against the church's theology and condemned Galileo with Heresy. These astronomical ideas that Galileo did not give up on granted Galileo lifelong house arrest. It was here, however, that Galileo formulated new ideas to get published for the public, even though Galileo was forbidden from the church. Galileo's ideas demonstrated the reality that the public was not believing. Europeans of the seventeenth century were strictly bound to the church and were not relatively knowledgeable of spacial realities in relation to biblical teachings. With this, Galileo's proven ideas shaped a new reality that seemed advanced because the ideas of the public were theologies preached by the clergy. It was through numerous court confrontations that Galileo had to withstand to prove the severity of his confidence in his ideologies.

Galileo's ideas concerning Heliocentric science and the improvements on the telescope were radical to the public, but to the fathers of the scientific revolution, they were previously formulated ideas. Nicholas Copernicus began the Scientific Revolution with the publication of the text On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres just before his death. This text was the spark of the revolution that included a heliocentric model that theorized the independence of earth from other celestial occurrences. In this formulation, Copernicus wrote that the earth is one of many planets that individually rotates around the sun in one year and turns on its axis in one day. The sun is a fixed entity approximately in the center of the universe, celestial entities travel in circular pathways, there are three motions to the earth and the other planets, and earth is relatively close to the sun in relation to stars and other planets. Here, all ideas of heliocentric science had been structured for Galileo, and Galileo was the man who defended the Copernican theory in front of the Roman Church almost a century later. Galileo defined heliocentricism, but he did not originate the ideas as Copernicus had many formulated before him. Also a contemporary of Galileo was Johannes Kepler who was a noted astrologer of the seventeenth century. Kepler crafted his rendition of the refracting telescope that was an improvement of Galileo's previous design. Galileo's telescope helped to define the surface of the moon and the shape planets in his defense of the Copernican theory; however, Kepler's design allowed for a wider field of view with the convergence of light rays. Through this telescope, Kepler could view objects at a much greater magnification with a clear measurement of the distance between spacial objects. The telescope was first introduced in the Netherlands in 1608, the Galilean telescope was developed in 1609, but Kepler's design evolved two years later with numerous advancements. Kepler's design was used for another century before another notable improvement was published. Galileo's ideas in astronomy were postulated by former scientists and some were reproved by his contemporaries.

Galileo founded numerous theories and inventions in the scientific revolution; however, his ideas compete equally with his contemporaries. In the seventeenth century, when the scientific revolution began, the spark of scientific innovations unfolded the truth of space. Galileo's ideas in this era note him as being a father of the revolution; however, specifically his works with astronomy, where made with the accompaniment of former astronomers or were improved by his contemporaries. The ideas got Galileo into much trouble in his time, they laid out the reality of space, and they helped future scientists to create ideas. To scientists of the same era, though, the ideas were on the verge of pervious publication. Seventeenth century Europe was educated on scientific ideas that were not all justified until the scientific revolution that Galileo took part in. Galileo was able inform his generation about heliocentric science and he illustrated new celestial objects with his telescope, but Copernicus and Kepler were making similar notions at earlier times and in more complex fashions. 

Tuesday, December 7, 2010

Peer Review

Essay's graded on scale 1-9
8-9- has clear well developed thesis, supported with considerable relevant historical info
5-7-essay has partially developed thesis with some relevant information
0-1-essay lacks thesis and does not show understanding of question

Monday, December 6, 2010

Free Response Question #1

"Why are the trials and tribulations of Galileo often considered both predicative of the future of Western Civilization as well as a perfect encapsulation of the context of his own time?"

Galileo was a revolutionary scientist of the seventeenth century who was considered a father of the scientific revolution. His work with astronomy, physics, and methodology are still used today and opened many pathways for future scientists beyond Galileo; even though, much of Galileo's work was not readily accepted by the Europeans of his era. Galileo began his work as a professor of mathematics at the Perdua University in Italy. Here, he taught many students his ideas on physics and mechanics; however, it was also here that Galileo came up with many ideas for later scientific publications. Within his time, Galileo came up with advancements in astronomy, physics, and methodology that were beyond the knowledge of his fellow Europeans, but these ideas have served contemporary scientists with foundations for advancement.

Along with a few other European scientists, Galileo was apart of the scientific revolution, where there was a great improvement in physics, astronomy, mechanics, methodology, etc. Galileo, namely, was noted for his inventive ideas in astronomy, physics, and methodology. In 1609, Galileo produced an improvement of the telescope after hearing of its invention in Holland. With this telescope, Galileo observed the four phases of a moon of Venus, he better explained the surface of the moon, that the milky way is a cluster of starts, and many other astronomical advances that had not been justified. Astronomically, Galileo also proved that the solar system was not geocentric; the sun was the center of the solar system. This is stated in his Copernican Theory. With physics, Galileo disproved Aristotle with this laws of uniform acceleration. Galileo thought up the idea and taught to his students that the velocity of a falling object is independent of its mass; therefore, two objects falling at once will fall at the same rate despite the difference in their masses. With methodology, Galileo bettered the reasoning for experimentation. Galileo saw that the explanation of a phenomenon could be found if the phenomena was broken down into its most basic means. Many situations, Galileo presented, could be understood if they were dissected and analyzed by their individual axioms. Of the many original and improved ideas that Galileo thought of, these were a few that were most notable in his success. 

From the time of Galileo's death to today, scientists have been working to prove scientific ideas that often have a connection to Galileo's findings. Galileo came up with the a better telescope to observe the moon, and today people walk on the moon. Also, through the discovery of the sun as the center of the solar system, people have further represented the characteristics about each planet such as their orbit, gravitational pull, length of days, etc. With physics, people throughout history such as Einstein have came up with their laws of motion based on the masses and acceleration of objects. Einstein was around long after Galileo; however, their similar subject matter illustrated the advanced level of thinking that Galileo possessed. Many biologists and chemists today have used Galileo's methodology to get a better understanding of experiments. For example, with the muscles of the body, biologists have been able to better comprehend their movement by breaking down the motion into the basic-most means. On the contrary, scientists such as Descartes who came after Galileo disagreed with Galileo's methodology. Descartes found that the point of experimentation had strict purpose rather than to analyze a theory. In varying amounts of ways, Galileo's ideas have expanded into the thoughts of many proceeding scientists.

In the seventeenth century, the public confronted science based on personal assumptions or the assumptions of the church. Therefore, when Galileo came up with new ideas that often disproved the church, the proven reality of Europe was not readily accepted. In Galileo's Copernican theory, he solidified that the sun was the center of the universe. This went radically against the church and put Galileo up for Heresy. These astronomical ideas that Galileo did give up granted Galileo lifelong house arrest. It was here, however, that Galileo wrote texts that explained his ideas in physics and methodology to get published for the public, even though Galileo was forbidden from the church. Aristotle had presented the idea that objects fall in direct proportion to their weight and it had been from then on assumed as true. When Galileo disproved this, it was not until later that the ideas were published, but Galileo's ideas proved the reality that the public was not believing. Europeans of the seventeenth century were strictly bound to the church and were not relatively knowledgeable. With this, Galileo's proven ideas shaped a new reality that seemed advanced because the ideas of the public were assumed theories that were handed down into their knowledge.

Overall, Galileo founded numerous theories and inventions in the midst of the scientific revolution. Even though the ideas got Galileo into much trouble in his time, they laid out the reality of space and helped future scientists to create ideas. Galileo's ideas were an advancement of others or an origination of his own. Therefore, later scientists were given the opportunity to advance on Galileo's works as well. Because of this, many new experiments have been proven and science is an endless subject of proven and unproven ideas. Seventeenth century Europe was educated on scientific ideas that were not all justified until the scientific revolution that Galileo took such a large part in. In his work with astronomy, physics, and methodology, Galileo was able to map out Europe for his generation and he was able to lay down a path for the future generations of people to come. 

Friday, December 3, 2010

France 1580-1715

1598- Henry IV King of France issues Edict of Nantes-grants religious toleration to French Huguenots
Henry IV is established as a politique for this

French Tax System
big problem in this time period because the nobility was exempt from paying taxes

Sully- Henry IV appoints the duck of Sully
middle class man- cannot completely fix the tax situation but makes it sufficient
people can see their taxes of towards something in the city

Nobility of the Robe- 

1610- Henry IV is assassinated
from the family of the House of Bourbon
Great family of France

Henry's son will become king but he is only 9 years old
Louis XIII
1624- Cardenal Richelieu takes charge as regent
1624-1642- Richelieu is the real ruler of France--wants to strengthen royal power in France-Politique--put politics ahead of religion
Richelieu wanted to knock down the up and coming nobles--divides up France into 32 segments
each segment was given intendants that ruled for Richelieu
intendants were middle class so that they were more loyal to Richelieu
Richelieu wanted to get the Hapsburg to lose power and supports Protestants in the 30 years war so that the Hapsburg does not get anymore power
Luois XIII and Richelieu dies 1643 and 1644 respectively

Louis XIII has a son Louis XIV
known as the sun king
most dominant figures in French history
his chief minister Jules Mazarin-also a cardinal
as the new king was crowned rebellions came out-les frondes
point of rebellion was to limit the power of the king
caused Luois XIV to leave Paris
says "Je suis l'etat"- absolutism "'etat c'est moi"
builds palace of Versaille to get out of Paris

Bishop Bossuet- theorized the divine right of kings
the principle architect of the idea of absolutism in the 17th century
Louis XIV liked him very much

Louis XIV was the first and greatest absolutism
power of intendants goes up and nobility has to owe legions to the king
nobility has no job unless

describes Louis

Jean-Baptiste Colbert
appointed by Louis XIV to be minister of finance
Colbert who instituted the practice of Mercantilism
gov. control of all aspects of the economy
French also has major colony in America- Quebec
Colbert who encourages the fur trade in Canada-perfect way to use a colonies to enhance the mother country

1685- france has population of 19 million
1 million are huguenots
louis XIV revokes edict of nantes because he does not need them anymore
all protestant churches are closed and protestants forced to become catholic
problem: french working class is heavy huguenot
when it was revokes voer 200,000 working class left to other countries
diminishes France's industrial copacity

sets out on a series of wars
Wars of Louis XIV
in this time, France was the most populated nation
France had become most powerful after 30 years war
reasons for wars:
1.wanted france to expand its borders
2. wanted to make France a global power by inheriting the Spanish holdings

Thursday, December 2, 2010


  • born: near Pisa 1564
  • professor of mathematics in Pisa
  • professor of mathematics at University of Padua
  • here he experimented on the speed at which objects fall, mechanics, and pendulums
  • 1609-heard about the discovery of the telescope in Holland
  • built a better one that lead to the discovery of 
    • mountains and valleys on the moon, sunspots, the four largest moons of the planet Jupiter, and the phases of Venus
  • 1614-came up with the Copernican Theory-the sun is the center of the solar system
    • accused of heresy (against the church)
    • people believed that earth was the center of the solar system so this was revolutionary
  • 1616-forbidden by the church
  • 1632- proposed his book the "Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems"
    • set of arguments published that were for and against the Capernican Theory
    • accused of heresy and was sentences to life imprisonment but that was reduced to permanent house arrest
    • forced to publicly withdraw his support for the theory
  • continued to write
  • 1638- "Discourses Concerning Two New Sciences" was published
    • presented laws of motion and principals of mechanics
  • died in 1642

Effect on Europe
  • his experimental method
  • believed that purpose of experimentation was not to get information but to test a theory and the success of a test method
  • phenomena should be analyzed mechanically 
  • every phenomenon is a result of a combination of basic phenomena and universal axioms
  • if proven theorems are applied to a larger phenomenon, it can be explained why a phenomenon occurs in the way it does
  • answer to a scientific phenomenon can in other words be found by reducing it to the simplest terms on the basis of matter and motion
  • only the most basic events occur because of one axiom
  • this influences many scientists to come such as 
    • Descartes who analyzed Galileo's methods and experiments to come up with a counterargument
  • Galileo's method also helped chemists and biologists to explain the motions of the body on the basis of matter, motion, energy, and basic principals

  • for most people of the 17th century Galileo was like a hero to them
  • hero of modern science
  • Galileo discovered many things: 
    • with his telescope, he first saw the moons of Jupiter and the mountains on the Moon; 
    • he determined the parabolic path of projectiles and calculated the law of free fall on the basis of experiment.
    • He is known for defending and making popular the Copernican system,
    •  using the telescope to examine the heavens,
    •  inventing the microscope, dropping stones from towers and masts,
    •  playing with pendula and clocks,
    •  being the first ‘real’ experimental scientist,
    •  advocating the relativity of motion, and creating a mathematical physics.
    •  His major claim to fame probably comes from his trial by the Catholic Inquisition and his purported role as heroic rational, modern man in the subsequent history of the ‘warfare’ between science and religion
  • began the scientific revolution
  • Galileo's work into three or four parts: 
    • (1) his physics, 
    • (2) his astronomy, and 
    • (3) his methodology, which could include his method of Biblical interpretation and his thoughts about the nature of proof or demonstration. In this tradition, typical treatments dealt with his physical and astronomical discoveries and their background and/or who were Galileo's predecessors
  • the church forbade his work becuase it went against the scientific assumptions of the people

Monday, November 29, 2010

The Restoration 1660-1688

cromwell dies
his son tries to claim power but he was not a strong leader like his father
oliver cromwell is lord protector from 1649-1660
Chalres II brought out of exile for restoration

  • cromwell was a complete novice when he first went to war
  • became driving force of the protestant army
  • cromwell was very militant leader
  • levellers and diggers are out of hand
  • Cromwell felt England was the promise land
  • cromwell felt he was working for god
  • wanted to assemble a republic of saints
  • 1655-cromwell told major generals to take righteousness the town

become knowledgeable of

Explain how the trials and tribulations of Galileo pointed towards the future of Europe while at the same time demonstrated the realities of his own time.
Galileo's trials and tribulations
Predict how they will effect Europe

Tuesday, November 23, 2010


Peace of Augsburgin Holy Roman Empire
1555 agreement declaring that the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler
Princes had the choice between Catholicism and Lutheranism...No Calvinism
Hapsburg FamilyControlled Austria, Hungary, and parts of the Holy Roman Empire. They stayed in power over 700 years (until WW1)
Catholic dynasty of Spain
Elected Holy Roman Emporers between 1438 and 1740
rulers of Autrian and Spanish empires
want to reverse protestant gains on the HRE in the 30 years war.
30 years war(1618-1648) This Bourbon vs. Habsburg War resulted from a conflict between the Protestant Union and the Catholic League in the Holy Roman Empire.
held mostly in present day Germany
Most destructive war in european History
four phases
1/3 germans die, germany stays ununified, and French become dominant force in Euro.
Bohemian PhaseThe first phase of the Thirty Years' War which culminated in the Catholic victory at the Battle of White Mountain.
1618-1625-in Bohemia
catholics- Ferdinand II
Protestants- Fredrick V
Ferdinand wins; Hapsburg takes control of Bohemia and turns it catholic
Ferdinand IISuccessor to Matthias as HRE. Arranged troops from Milan, Pope, Bavaria - > Bohemia and defeated Frederick V at battle of the White Mountain in 1620. Frederick fled at "winter king" and lost his ancestral lands in Palatine. Ferdinand got himself elected king of Bohemia and took land from Prot. nobles -> to church and Jesuits streamed in - recatholicising Bohemia.
Frederick VHe was the Calvinist elector of the Palatinate to who the Protestant Bohemians rallied around. Eventually his troops would be defeated at the Battle of the White Mountains by a combined Hapsburg-Spanish force.
Danish Phase1625-29, The second phase of the Thirty Years' War in which the Catholic imperial army led by Albert of Wallenstein won a series of major victories against the Protestants.
Christian IV of Denmark leads protestants -lutheran
n. netherlands are dutch calvanists
s. netherlands are catholic
royalists lead by general wallenstien 
catholics win-edith of restitution
edict of restitutionImperial law that prohibited all Calvinist worship and restored Catholic ownership of land stolen by the Protestant Princes of the Reformation.--after danish phase
christian IV of Denmarkdefeated by catholic army in Lubech in danish phase
general Wallensteinwins danish phase for catholics
Roman catholic hired by Ferdinand II and this man buys provisions for his army and tries to carve a kingdom in Europe. He is murdered by Ferdinand II because there were suspicions that he was trying to overtake the land he was supposed to be gaining for Ferdinand II not himself.
swedish phase1629-1635, The third phase of the Thirty Years' War marked by Sweden's entrance into the war under King Gustavus Adolphus; during this phase, the Protestants began to defeat the Catholics on many fronts.
gustavos defeats wallenstein's forces
catholics cannot fully unify HRE as catholic
Gustavus AdolphusThis was the king of Sweden who led a highly disciplined force into Northern Germany and turned the tide against the Hapsburgs in the 30 Years War.
French Phase1635-1648 The fourth and final phase of the Thirty Years' War marked by France's entrance into the war on the side of the Protestants; this gave the Protestants the support needed to defeat the Catholics.
gustavus dies
french, swedes, dutch, against catholic germany
no winner- battle is summoned with the Peace of Westphalia
germany, france, sweden, dutch, and pope must meet to make a conclusion
Peace of WestphaliaPeace negotiated in 1648 to end the Thirty Years' War, Europe's most destructive internal struggle over religion. The treaties contained new language recognizing statehood and nationhood, clearly defined borders, and guarantees of security
provisions: each german principality has right to maje diplomacies and peace treaties, rulers can establish religion and calvanism is accepted
dutch republic independent
switzerland is neutral
Concordat of BolognaThis was the treaty with the papacy and France, where Francis I agreed to recognize the supremacy of the papacy over a universal council. In return, the French crown gained the right to appoint all French bishops and abbots. This treaty was signed as a way for Francis I to make money. This allowed the French to pick their own priests for the churches, as a last resort to save money. (p.489)
between Francis I and Pope Leo X
did little to resolve the reformation in france
francis IThis was the French king who reached an agreement with Pope Leo X and allowed the French king to select French bishops and abbots
valois family
Pope Leo Xbegan to sell indulgences to raise money to rebuild St. Peter's Basilica in Rome; tried to get Luther to recant his criticisms of the church; condemned him an outlaw and a heretic when he would not do so; banned his ideas and excommunicated him from the church
part of concordat of bologna
HuguenotsFrench radical protestants-calvanists
1/10 of french pop
2/5 of half nobility of france
relation to fast chaning German reformation
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre-Roman Catholics traveling in bands kill over 20,000 Huguenots
-Praised by Phillip II of Spain (former husband of Bloody Mary)
1572- French Protestants Henry Navarre and Margaret marry on St. Bartholomew's day in Paris
thousands of Huguenots travel to paris for this
ambushed by french catholics and the medicci-Charles IX and mother Catherine di Medicci
2,000 hungeunots killed; starts civil war in france
Henry Navarrealso henry IV
come in 1559 which begins Burbon dynasty that would lastuntil 1800; protestant but makes catholism official religion of France to put end to civial wars; issues of Edicf of Nates and France unites; dies in 1610
Charles IXKing of France from 1560 to 1574 whose reign was dominated by his mother Catherine de Medicis (1550-1574)
Catherine de' Mediciwife of Henry II, influenced her sons after the end of there father's rein. She placed an alliance with the ultra-Catholics (the militant Catholics), which was led by the second most powerful family in France, The Guise Family. She permitted the Guise Family their own independent army,which they would use to take out the other religions residing within the French Borders. This led to the civil wars in France and also the St. Bartholome's Day Massacre.
French Civil Warlasted 15 years, political fight for succession; wars: vs. guise (catholics) & bourbon (huguenots); elizabeth changed sides; ferdinand - catholic; frederick - protestant;
destroys trade and agriculture
Henry IV of Navarre becomes monarch-huguenot
leader of Hugeunot house of bourbon
1598-navarre ends civil war by converting to cathlocism to grant freedom to Calvanism -edict of Nantes
edict of nantes1598, decree promulgated at Nantes by King Henry IV to restore internal peace in France, which had been torn by the Wars of Religion; the edict defined the rights of the French Protestants
religous UNITY
Phillip IIKing of Spain after father charles V gives up throne, 
King of Spain, 1556 - 1598; married to Queen Mary I of England;he was the most powerful monarch in Europe until 1588; controlled Spain, the Netherlands, the Spanish colonies in the New World, Portugal, Brazil, parts of Africa, parts of India, and the East Indies.
battle of lapento 1571
though spain and Netherlands, Phillip tortures and kills all who will not convert to catholicism-high taxes and execution
battle of lepantoa naval battle fought between a Spanish and Venetian fleet and the German navy. The Spanish won. The battle meant that European navies ahd surpassed the Muslims. The Turks could no longer challenge Europeans on international routes.
dutch revoltin netherlands- revolt against spain where 20,000 duthc convert to calvanism as an insult
duke of parma is a peacemaker and is able to settle the riots, the Dutch rebelled against Phillip II because he tried to impose Catholicism in the Netherlands; the Dutch were also motivated by economic factors, since they believed they were being unfairly taxed
Duke of AlbaLead a Spanish army into the Netherlands on orders from Phillip II of Spain. Made a council in the Netherlands and he was known for inspiring terror. His percecution send many fleeing from the Netherlands for safety
made a church court called coundilc of troubles/blood
executed prominent nobles, siexed property, and applied new taxes
dutch escaped to the countryside to drive away from the spanish and looked at the house of orange for help
house of orangeleaders of most of the 7 provinces of the Dutch Republic, favored development of a centralized government with selves as hereditary monarchs
Duke of Parmathe next Spanish leader who arrived in the Netherlands and played on the Dutch religious differences; split their united front
won back 10 southern provinces
union of utrecht1579 formed in response to southern caths. siding with Duke of Parma. 7 northern provs. led by Holland and Zeeland. In 1581 they declared themselves the United Provinces of the Netherlands aka Dutch Republic/Holland. Previously - total turmoil, now division btwn. N and S over support for PII but both sides wanting to pursue their cause. Eliz sent troops to help keep Parma out of Antwerp. Encrgd. PII to plan invasion of England.
because of war in netherlands from 1581-1609
n.n calvanists versus s,n catholics
england supports Dutch and gives them all supplies for war (Queen Elizabeth)
Spanish Armadathe Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England, ending in disaster, due to the raging storm in the English Channel as well as the smaller and better English navy led by Francis Drake. This is viewed as the decline of Spains Golden Age, and the rise of England as a world naval power.
intending to overthrow Elizabeth I of England and turn england catholic
130 spanish ships left and 67 came back
spain can't handle weather in england and English ships are much lighter and better equipped
Spain never recovers
dutch rises
england takes advantage of Spain's connections in america and uses its resources
Elizabeth IQueen of England from 1558 to 1603, This queen of England chose a religion between the Puritans and Catholics and required her subjects to attend church or face a fine. She also required uniformity and conformity to the Church of England
Henry IIking of France from 1547 to 1559
persecuted Huguenots
PalatinateThe German principality that led the Calvinist quest in the Bohemian Phase of the Thirty Years' War.
defenestration of Prague1618
The hurling, by Protestants, of Catholic officials from a castle window in Prague, setting off the Thirty Years' War.
began revolt against the hapsburg
James Ison of Mary Stuart
begins Stuart dynasty, the first Stuart to be king of England and Ireland from 1603 to 1925 and king of Scotland from 1567 to 1625
becomes king after death of queen elizabeth in 1603
end of tutor and beginning of stuart
believer in divine right of kings-power of monarchy directly from god
quarreled with puritan members of parliament who wanted to purify english church from hint of catholocism
opposed to this preferring hierarchy of bishops present in anglican church
no bishops no king
needed this for control of england
Charles Ibecomes king after James I in 1625
son of James
beleiver in divine right of kigns
in need ot money
agaisnt puritans
needs a supporter from anglican church
petition of right 1628---in return for grants of money, charles I signs law that provides
no one will be compelled to pay any tax or lone without any consent of parliament. king is not alloed to levy tax without approval of parliamebt
no can be put into prison without process of law. cannot put people in tower of london without trial
religion was the most explosive issue
with charles' encouragement , william laud wants to turn church of england into a catholic church that does not follow the pope
opposite of puritan ideals
1639-loud makes a big mistake
tries to impose english book of prayer onto scottish prespertyrian church
riot of scotts-prayer book riot
scots determined that england will not tell them what to do
scots and english go to war
charles desperate to raise money to fight war against the scotts
1640-1648-Long Parliament
chalres recalls parliament into session 
causes constitutional and religious crisis
during this time, parliament goes out of its way to undo royal tyranny from charles I
execute William Loud 
legislate a number of laws to limit royal power
petition of right 1628Stated that the king could not use fored loans on new taxation with out consulting parliment, in return parliment would grant new funds to the king. Charles I eventualy agreed
gives parliament rightful power and it gives Charles money
divine right of kingsthe belief that the authority of kings comes directly from God
high-churchname given in Europe for the 20th century Lutheran movement that emphasizes worship practices and doctrines that are similar to those found within both Roman Catholicism and the Anglo-Catholic wing of Anglicanism (wikipedia).
puritansProtestant sect in England hoping to "purify" the Anglican church of Roman Catholic traces in practice and organization.
strict protestantism in england
*wished to elimenate the common book of prayer in church of england
*opposed bishops
House of Commonsone of the houses of Parliament including wealthy landowners and rich business leaders that represent the middle class and are elected to office
many were puritans
scottish rebellionengland tries to impose the anglican book of common prayer on scotland - causes rebellion; Charles is forced to call Parliament because he needs new taxes, (1637) The Scottish rebelled in Edinburgh after Charles I and Bishop Laud tried to force their religion on the Scots in the Book of Common Prayer. It was used by Parliament to push its revolutionary agenda on the King.
bishop laudAligned with Charles I. Accused of trying to make the Anglican church too Catholic. Factor leading to civil war.
Triennial Act1641
An Act of Parliament reluctantly agreed to by Charles I (who said it reduced his sovereign powers) which stated that there had to be a parliament of at least 50 days duration every three years.
eliminates bishops and the star chamber court
english civil warCharles I tried to advocate the divine right of kings and bring more absolutist policies to England. He was also seen as bringing too much Catholic influence to the Church of England. War broke out between Parliament's supporters(Roundheads)and the kings's supporters(Cavaliers). Later Charles I was tried and executed in 1649 as a"tyrant,traitor,murderer,and public enemy". Oliver Cromwell,leader of military,ruled England as "Lord Protector" until 1658.
oliver cromwellEnglish military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.
maintained a republic until his death
lord protector of england, ireland, and scottland
almost a monarch
dies in 1658 and his son treis to carry on the republic but cannot hold up
parliament has an election and charles I's son Charles II comes into office
new model armyThe disciplined fighting force of Protestants led by Oliver Cromwell in the English civil war.
also called the ironsides who defeat the cavaliers
interregnumthe time between two reigns, governments, etc.-cromwell lead england as lord protector
held a republic
but ruled as a military dictator
forabde entertainment
english grew weary of puritans
new religious group-the levellers-more equality in property ownershuip and in the franchise
new religious group- the diggers - extremists who desired a communal society
new religious group- the quakers- preached toleration and peaceful living
levellersradical religious revolutionaries-sought social and political reforms, a more egalitarian (equal) society.
equality between servants and nobility
as jesus said-no commandment more important than to befriend god and befriend man
diggersdenied Parliament's authority and rejected private ownership of land
true levellers
equality of women and men
equality of nature and man
leader-gerard Winstanley
quakersEnglish dissenters who broke from Church of England, preache a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania
charles IIKing of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-1685) who reigned during the Restoration, a period of expanding trade and colonization as well as strong opposition to Catholicism
not always well liked by his people but he was supported to end chaos in england
made a secret aggreement with Louis XIV to become catholic in time in exchange for money; meanwhile, test act is enforced by parliament to exclude non-anglicans from military and civil office
dies without heirs-throne went to brother James II
the restorationThis was the re-establishment of the monarchy in England under Charles II. Both houses of Parliament were restored but the religious tensions still were present in England
restored without religious toleration of other groups
test act1673-excluded those unwilling to receive the sacrament of the Church of England form voting, holding office, preaching, teaching, attending universities, ore assembling for meetings, Parliament passed this in response to Charles II's declaration of indulgences; required all military members to swear an oath against transubstantiation.
excluded non-Anglicans from military and civilian offices
Council of TrentThe congress of learned Roman Catholic authorities that met intermittently from 1545 to 1563 to reform abusive church practices and reconcile with the Protestants.
Henry Bourbon(1588-1646) Was going to marry Catherine de Medicis daughter, Margaret, in Paris during August 1572; their wedding turned into a massacre, which he survived; became a Catholic so he could be king of France
same as henry of navarre
society of jesusa Roman Catholic order founded by Saint Ignatius of Loyola in 1534 to defend Catholicism against the Reformation and to do missionary work among the heathen, (The Jesuits) was founded to spread catholic doctrine around the world during the Counter Reformation., Jesuits were the official Catholic response to the reformation
papal index of forbidden booksPublished by the Church to punish heresy. All Protestant writing was included., Church's attempt to stop Protestantism
A first version (the Pauline Index) was promulgated by Pope Paul IV in 1559 (wikipedia).
war of three henry'swar for secular power, between Henry of Navarre, Henry VIII and Henry of guise
henry Navarre capitalized on the repugnant idea ofspanish intervention on the Guise side. King henry's men assasinated Henry of guise, and a catholic monk killed the kings. By default, henry Navarre becomes the first Bourbon monarch of France
as a protestant he cannot enter paris so he issues the edict of nantes to liberate calvanism
apart of the french civil war
valoisFrench Catholic monarchy in power during the French Civil Wars, French Royal Family: major members include Catherine de Medici, Henry II
guise familyFrench family who worked to control Francis II. Family members were members of government and religion such as Duke and Cardinals. The family was known for being militants, main ultra-Catholic family, they had the loyalty of Paris and northern and northwestern France, support from the papacy and support from the Jesuits; main force in French Wars of Religion
Louis XIVking of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715), This French king ruled for the longest time ever in Europe. He issued several economic policies and costly wars. He was the prime example of absolutism in France
african slave tradeAfrican peoples captured and taken as slaves to South America (sugar cane plantations) and North America (cotton plantations)
mercantilisman economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
bullionist economy- a country's wealth was measured in gold and siler
import as little as possible and sell more than the country purchasedx to create a favorable balance of trade and accumlatre gold
self sufficient
guarded trade secrets- skilled craftsment not allowed to emigrate or move
advised that colonies provide resources for the industry of its mother countries 
adds to national wealth
absolute monarchs; absolutismcontrol taxation, militray and religion, a monarch that has complete and unlimited power to rule his or her people
but must keep nobility at hand
theory a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.); coincides with the divine right of kings
come from strong ruling families
had paintings of them to make them appear divine and admirable
thomas hobbesEnglish materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679), wrote "Leviathan" and believed people were naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish; he also believed only a powerful governemnt could keep an orderly society
Jacques Bossuetadvocate of the divine right of kings, by which their power was absolute and could not be disobeyed., French theologian and preacher who argued that government was established by God to organize society ( Book=Politics Drawn from the Very Words o Holy Scripture)
sullyhenry IV chose councilors from low ranking noble, who were more loyal. this was his chief advisor, a protestant. , French statesman (1560-1641)
Estates GeneralFrance's traditional national assembly with representatives of the three estates, or classes, in French society: the clergy, nobility, and commoners. The calling of the Estates General in 1789 led to the French Revolution. (p. 585)
Henry IV nevers called is assembly with interference from his body
Louis XIIIson of Henry IV who takes thron after fathers assasination in 1610, king of France from 1610 to 1643 who relied heavily on the advice of Cardinal Richelieu (1601-1643)
son of Marie de Medici
Cardinal RichelieuThis was the man who influenced the power of King Louis XIII the most and tried to make France an absolute monarchy
placed practical politics first
worked for better tax collection
split france into 32 districts
withdrew edict of nantes 
saw poltiical advantage in siding with protestants
Marie de Mediciheaded govt. for child-king Louis XIII, feudal nobles/princes had control of govt., but appointed Cardinal Richelieu to the council of ministers
Louis XIVking of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715)
son of anne of austria
put down personal rule in response to the fronde in 1661...he claimed "l'etat, c'est moi" (the state is me)
expanded military for security
never called the estates general-favored upper class because he could better trust their loyalty
did not fix insufficiency of tax and had to devalue currency and sell titles and office-government appointments
patroned writers, arts and science, and fostered classical style acedemics
withdrew remaining provision of edict of nantes and attempted to crack down on the Jansenists
EXPANSION-encroaching neighbors
anne of austriaDevoutly Catholic regent of Louis XIV.
depended on italian cardinal jules mazarin
jules mazarinBecame a cardinal in 1641, succeeded Richelieu and dominated the power in French government.
rased taxes and caused a responsive revolt of nobility in 1648
the frondea french rebellion that was caused by Mazarin's attempt to increase royal revenue and expand state bureaucracy, caused Louis XIV to distrust the state and turn to absolutism
racineFrench classicist playwright who wrote tragic dramas based on Greek and Roman legend that analyzed the power of love.
moliereFrench classicist playwright who produced popular comedies that exposed the hypocrisies and follies of society.
fostered classical styleestablished acedemic style by louis XIV that taught order, harmony, and hieararchy
jean-baptiste colbertfrench politician employed by Louis XIV who advocated vigorous mercantilism
sponsored development of manufacturing
large areas of free interanl terriffs
five great farms to enhance trade
improved roads and cnals
halped market with expansion of military
supported french trade in N. america
inititated French East india company to compete with english and dutch
improved tax collection
Jansenistsnarrow-minded Catholics that were horrified that the Jesuits preferred to emphasize God's love and mercy rather than fear of death and hell
similar to calvinism
five great farmsThe internal tariff union set up by minister Colbert to increase trade inside France.
william of orangeDutch prince invited to be king of England after The Glorious Revolution. Joined League of Augsburg as a foe of Louis XIV.
franche-comtea province between France and Switz that Louis XIV took after failing to take over spanish netherlands.
then LouisXIV aided Hungarians and Turks to fight against the Hapsburg
War of the League of Augsburgan aggressive war waged by Louis XIV against Spain and the Empire and England and Holland and other states (1689-1697)
between France and an alliance of Louis's Protestants and Catholic enemies...settled by returning everything to its before-war/antebellum status
War of Spanish Successionwas a major European conflict over the succession to Spanish throne. In 1701, Charles II died and had bequeathed all of his possessions to Philip, duc d'Anjou — a grandson of the French King Louis XIV — who thereby became Philip V of Spain. The war began slowly, as the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I of Habsburg fought to protect his own dynasty's claim to the Spanish inheritance. As Louis XIV began to expand his territories more aggressively, however, other European nations (chiefly England, Portugal and the Dutch Republic) entered on the Holy Roman Empire's side to check French expansion.[6] Other states joined the coalition opposing France and Spain in an attempt to acquire new territories, or to protect existing dominions. The war was fought not only in Europe, but also in North America, where the conflict became known to the English colonists as Queen Anne's War, and by corsairs and privateers along the Spanish Main. Over the course of the fighting, some 400,000 people were killed.
euope feared a mega-monarchy of france and spain and went to war to prevent this
grand-alliance-led by william of oragne/william III of england
william died before the end of the war, his allaince held, and france ambitions were checked
treaty of utrecht1713, 1713, ended War of Spanish Succession between Louis XIV's France and the rest of Europe; prohibited joining of French and Spanish crowns; ended French expansionist policy; ended golden age of Spain; vastly expanded British Empire
rococofanciful but graceful asymmetric ornamentation in art and architecture that originated in France in the 18th century
toriessupporters of Charles II
whigsnon-supporters of Charles II
James IItakes throne after brother Charles II dies
openly catholic, This was the Catholic king of England after Charles II that granted everyone religious freedom and even appointed Roman Catholics to positions in the army and government, King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1685-1688). The last Stuart king to rule both England and Scotland, he was overthrown by his son-in-law William of Orange
ignored test act, dismissed protestant ministers, declared religious freedom
baptized his son catholic
william and Marywilliam Orange (netherlands) and Mary (james II daughter from first marraige) combined with whig and tory members of parliament to overthrow james and invade england.
no one came to the side to aid James so william and mary traveled across the channel and became William and Mary of England, King and Queen of England in 1688. With them, King James' Catholic reign ended. As they were Protestant, the Puritans were pleased because only protestants could be office-holders.
william created bank of england-bundless line of credit through high class investments
the glorious revolutionIn order to prevent a Catholic Dynasty the English Parliament drove out James II following the birth of his son and replaced him with the protestant Stahoulder of the Netherlands William, and his wife and daughter of James II, Mary II. This was a relativly bloodless revolution. (excepting the Irish Rebellion in which an Catholic coalition of English-Irish-French troops led by James were butchered).
john lockeEnglish philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property. 1632-1704
english bill of rightsKing William and Queen Mary accepted this document in 1689. It guaranteed certain rights to English citizens and declared that elections for Parliament would happen frequently. By accepting this document, they supported a limited monarchy, a system in which they shared their power with Parliament and the people.
reaffirmed the test act-allowed dissenters to worship
anglicans remained in church of england
rights to pariliament in financial control
english gentry-moderate and large landowners to controlled gov. thorugh house of commons
protestants now inheret monarchy
Annemary's sister takes crown after william and mary
dutch republicUnited Provinces of the Netherlands-1st half of 17th century was golden age-govt. consisted of organized confederation of 7 provinces each w/ rep. govt.
center of banking and shipping
prosperous agriculture-dairy and tulips
comfortable, pleasantly furnished homes
possibly the finest living in the 1600's
golden age of the netherlandswas a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world.
art patronage through the dutch reformed church
landscapes and seas scapes popular
antoni leeuwenhoek produces microscope
chrsitian huygens improves teleoscope and developed pendulum clocks
scular lifestyle
expanded to cape horn, south americaand settled there in mid 17th cent.
established colony in new amsterdam in n. america and in indonesia
only europeans not excluded from japan when the nation shut itself off from the outside world
dutch protected all relgions so many minorities fleed to republic
did not ever create a colonial empire because little enthusiasm to emigrate to distant colonies
dutch reformed churchUnited Provinces of the Netherlands. The rise of Calvinism here set the stage for a revolt against the Inquisition of King Philip II of Spain
stadholderThis was the name given to the person appointed by the States General to carry out ceremonial functions in a province in the Netherlands
usually head of house of orange
navigation actsLaws that governed trade between England and its colonies. Colonists were required to ship certain products exclusively to England. These acts made colonists very angry because they were forbidden from trading with other countries.
lead to three indecisive wars between british and dutch 1652-1674
anglo-dutch warsbecause of navigation acts the wars annexed dutch colony of new amsterdam renaming it new york
conflict fully ended when William came into power
balance-of-powerdescribes the pragmatic mechanism exercised by a minor political party or other grouping whose guaranteed support may enable an otherwise minority government to obtain and hold office (wikipedia).
Baldassare Castiglioni was an Italian courtier, diplomat, soldier, and a Renaissance author.
wrote the "Coutier", author of The Courtier which described proper behavior for Renaissance men and women
Niccolo Machiavelli-Was an Italian philosopher and writer based in Florence during the Renaissance. He was a founder of modern political science and wrote The Prince., (1469-1527) Wrote The Prince which contained a secular method of ruling a country. "End justifies the means."
Thomas MoreEnglish lawyer, humanist, philosopher, author, and statesmen of the Italian renaissance. Important counsellor of Henry VIII and Lord Chancellor at the end of his life. Considered a saint in the Catholic Church., He was a English humanist that contributed to the world today by revealing the complexities of man. He wrote Utopia, a book that represented a revolutionary view of society. (p.437)
Brothers and Sisters of the Common LifeGroup in Netherlands, developed outside of Church, practice Modern Devotion (men and women live separately, not monks or nuns), emphasized humility/tolerance/reverence/love of neighbor/duty)
flemish artmasters of the oil medium
Star ChamberAn English court of law established by Henry; set up to ensure the fair enforcement of laws against prominent people; a very powerful court;
new monarchiesCentralized Bureaucracy and professional armies
examples: Charles VII, Louis XI, Henry VII, Ferdinand and Isabella/fund Columbus's mission.
Tailledirect tax on the French Peasantry.Major source of income because tax was very large
Indulgencecertificates sold by the papacy for the forgiveness of sin 
most important thing that Martin Luther was going to fight against
Anabaptistbelieved exclusively in adult baptism. Also believed in a complete separation of church and state
ex. first amendment
PredestinationJohn Calvin believed in this: God has pre-determined all things
including who goes to heaven and hell
politiquestype of ruler: one who puts political necessity above personal belief
ex. Elizabeth
Columbian Exchangetransfer of goods between the Americas and Europe. Named after Columbus
also includes slavery, animal transport, introduction of non-indigenous plants, and disease
Diseases was a huge one
Join-Stock Companybusiness arrangement where the investors raise money for a venture no single one of them could afford.
particularly the English Colonists use to develop colonies in the new wo
intendantsFrench royal officials supervising provincial areas
key part of maintaining the absolute monarchy 
monarch controls these people
frondeSeries of rebellions against royal authority in France