Thursday, May 5, 2011

cold war

Khrushchev-ruler after Stalin-during the cold war, responsible for partial- de-stalinization

  • supported Stalin's purges 
Perstroika-political movement of Communist Party of Soviet Union-meaning-the "restructuring" referring to restructuring the Soviet political and economic system.
during the 1980's-towards the end of the soviety union
related with Gorbachev-nine years later, the berlin wall comes down
new president comes in to run the soviet as it is falling apart-Yeltson-in 92-the soviet union comes apart when Yeltson has to leave
Kennedy becomes president and is assassinated in 63-followed by Linen Banes Johnson
Johnson famously runs the ad of a young girl picking flowers when an atomic bomb alarm goesoff

  • with the fall of the soviet union-russiabecomes russian federation
  • all of the allied countries in eastern europe because independent countries
  • the countries within central asia-kasechstan, ukraine, ---become independent
  • end of soviet union-battling soviet afgahnistan war-osama bin laden was fighting soviet union-US fighting with Osama bin Laden
  • when Afghanistan wins- they turn on us

  • Relations between SOV. and US were bettered during the Strategic Arms LImitation Talks (SALT) treatyu-
  • the treaty stops the nuclear drawdown movement 

  • Sputnik program- 1957-big guiding factor that has an enormous effect on us today
  • robotic spacecraft missions launched by the soviet union- US are upset that the soviets advanced before the US with the Sputnik-
  • US makes an investment in [ublic education in math and science-changes everything
  • Kennedy claims that by the end of 1960's he wants men walking on the moon
  • spae race between russia and the US
  • we win- 1969-neil armstrong walks on the moon
  • development of NASA and military technologies lead to things we use today

  • Arba league-regional organization of Arab states in NOrt and Northeast Africa, and southwest Asia

  • czech republic-stayed a democracy during WWI
  • landlocked country in central erupt that became a republic after Cold war
  • member of nato since 1999
  • czechlislovakia and yugoslavia only heldtogether by dictators

  • genocide in 1990's
  • put down by the CLinton administration

  • Ghana-first colony to become independent from Britain in 20th century-first one in africa
  • Post Colonialism- wingspread independence of colonies from Europe
  • India becomes independent from Britian through Ghandi-
  • part of india broke up into pakisatan
  • 1950's development of paistan was a muslim state and indian muslims went to

  1. Iran-IRaq war
    1. different kinds of muslims
  2. osama bin laden and sudam husan did not like each other

  • 1967-six days of war in which isreal fights for golden heights
  • isreal and egypt

  • Margaret Thatcher-force in british politics in the 1980;s
  • conservative-staunch allie of regain and staunch anti-communist
  • in cold war against soviets

  • nelson Mandela-president of south africa in 1994-white africans had been 
  • brainwashed to have bad education and were not allowed to take part in society
  • south african independence

  • Musharraf-leader of pakistan in 1990's 
  • us will be doing business with Pakistan on the war of terrorism after 2001
  • all that time, Osama bin laden has been living in a compound next to Pakistan's military school

  • LECH-valenza leader fo solidarity movement against soviet union-won nonviolently
  • European union is developed in Bursself Belgium

Tuesday, May 3, 2011

Practice test 1


french revolution
russian revolution

atomic bomb

pacific theater-Japanese had attacked pearl harbor 1941 and the result was that the Americans entered the war against japan
battled japan across the pacific-battle of midway-US caught japanese fleet-
head up through japan and korea-brutal battles
FDR dies and truman comes int he make the decision that they had to use the atomic bomb
developed through WWII in the 30's and 40's-experiment called the Philadelphia experiment
project working not the a bomb
White sands of New mexico-allamegoro-did all of the atomic bomb testing
2 bomb dropped 150,000 people dead- 2 cities dropped off the map
russia signs 20 year pact of friendship with poland
russians were moving forward and not paying attention to provisional government that british americans had hoped for for protest 

Roosevelt had a decent personal relationship with Stalin-they felt like they could trust each other
there was complete difficulty with communism from roosevelt
stalin had compelte difficulty with us capitalism
they felt like they could be allies however
roosevelt dies unexpectedly-truman comes in
truman is suspicious of russian-soviet ambassador comes in to discuss with truman and truman rejects all fo this ideas
part fo the tension has to to do with poland-Germnay had invaded poland in beginning of WWII-Germany was out and they had to decide what to do with it
wanted a democratically elected government in poland-russia wanted a government in poland that would be a friend of russia
this causes further tension between US and Russia
in Japan, US bombers had been targeting Japanese cities like tokyo
during fire bombing of tokyo they wipe out center of the city-by autumn of 45 the war should have been over with just the continuation of conventional bombing 
there were very few industrial areas in Japan left-wanted Japanese to surrender
Eisenhower -the leader of the Allied forces against he nazi's in europe-he will become president after truman
japanese soldiers surrender
new japanese cabin made its first move

liberation of camps

Buchenbald concentration camp
liberated by us force-the day before Roosevelt died
us troops ordered german civilians to come see the camp-propaganda was untrue
all of them who found nazism a profitable faith came in nice suits-living looked at dead
nazi people could not believe the sight and the smells -
trucks full of bodies that were unable to burn
not their guilt-this camp was in their town but they had never come there-they were blameless they felt-but were they?

DACHAU-hundreds killed
after years of indescribable torture, the survivors were distraught and confused
millions had died-6 million jews-only 70,000 jewish survivors
the worst sin of the germans is tha they taught the germans to hate-longstanding contempt

Berlin May 1945-
battle fo berlin was won by the red army soviet celebration

Monday, May 2, 2011

review Facts for exam

  • Picasso first pioneered in cubism but later also practiced expressionism
  • Napoleon's continental system was aimed to-destroy british economy by boycotting british goods
  • afte war of Austrian succession-mara theresa was disappointed because fredrick kept silesia which he had seized in 1740
  • laissez-faire- means free trade-wealth is in a nations productive capability
  • Yugoslavia in the 1980's differed from Yugoslavia in the 1960's except- YUgoslavia no longer answered to the soviet union
  • in the early 20th century, before World War I, what france sot resented about Germany was its seizure of alsace and lorraine in 1871 in Franco-Prussian war
  • England did not accept the Gregorian calendar of 1582 until the middle of the 18th century because Protestants refused to accept a "catholic" calendar
  • after the assassination of Francis Ferdinand in 1914, serbie agreed to all of Austria's demands except allowing asutria to enter Serbia to search out threats
  • lenin and bolsheviks promised peace and land (bread) to peasants
  • art movements between the world wars reflected no longer making sense-dada
  • william harvey-circulation of blur
  • postwar similarity between WWI and WWII-recovery from damage and deprivation in Russia
  • HItlers Beer hall Putch in Munish in 1923 was geared to take over the government as Mussilinni had in Italy
  • the pretender generally refers to James II and his defendants who fled ENlgand in 1688 in the wake of the accession WIlliam and Mary
  • main consequence of the Dreyfus Affair in late 19th century France was-negative images of the Church and separation of schurch and state in 1906
  • Chapelier Law in France came about during the revolution-decalred labor unions and strikes illegal
  • In england, the first country to implement machinery was in -textiles
  • Themidorean Reaction-end of the terror
  • 18th century england was a time when parliament was able to strengthen its power over the monarchy mainly because the first two Hanover kinds hardly spoke enlgsh were unconcerned with english affairs
  • calvinism spread to n. america brit colonies, scotland, holland, and south african NOT NOT NOT NOT PARIS
  • GALLIPOLI-1915-an allied attempt to break into the Black Sea and connect with Russia
  • Lenin instituted the New economic Plan (NEO) to increase food supply and other products
  • following WWII, the general attitude of the Russian civilizations was great patriotism and optimism
  • Under NATO agreement, Germany was not allowed to develop nuclear weapons
  • First Russian leader to discuss the "crimes" of Stalin was KHRUSHCHEV
  • The schlieffen Plan in place in Germany on the eve of WWI had been altered to bolster Alsace and Lorraine
  • English clergyman John Wesley was part of a movement called the "great awakening" which emphasized personal, emotion religious experience; public confession of sins; caring for the poor, the sick and prisoners; outdoor, evangelical services


  • back to 1920's Hitler bagman to write that the Jews were the roots of all of Germany's problems
  • all of these ideas were put into German law when he came into power
  • German race was the most superior race
  • must get rid of al other races-most importantly, the Jews.
  • 1933-Jewish population of Europe was over 9 million
  • by the end of the war it is less than three million-6 million killed by nazi's
  • 2/3 of total jewish population killed in holocaust-hitler called it his FINAL SOLUTION
  • therefore, german dominance could start a thousand year gain over the world
  • concentration camp-seperate families between women, men, children, elders
  • people put into lines and were evaluated for work-if they could not work they were executed
  • worked slowly to death-and starved
  • Nazi camps began to be liberated by British and US 
  • took jews and put them onto train cars and hauled them to the concentration camps-when they arrived they were split up or sent directly to the gas chambers
  • Arbeit macht frei-work will make you free (auschwitz slogan)-really work put them to death
  • when British and US first came-they found these horrific conditions in barracks, burned bodies, skeletons, etc.
  • British and US were able to fly over camps and could see the camps
  • why didn't they bomb the camps?
  • british made nazi's flee, then the british came in and found the jews

  • battle of britain- 1940-1941

  • Germany goes back on non aggression treaty with russia and invades socket union-Battle of Stalin grad August 942-February 1943 2 million dead

  • pearl harbor-japan invades US-finds common enemy with Germany in the US-supported Germany and Italy-dec. 7, 1941-draws US into the war

  • US will take on Japan at Midway-Japanese fleet is virtually destroyed and US marines go island to island and in 1945-atomic bombs dropped on Japan

  • US gets involved with Europe-first sending troops with britain into N. Africa
  • first nazi war with US was D'Day

  • Normandy Invasion 1944-general in charge of camapaign is Isenhower -will be president after Truman

  • Battle f Berlin-final major battle fo war-russians come into Berlin-racing US and Brits to ge their first. wants to get back at germany after Stalingrad-let the russians get there first out of respect/in the battle of berlin the russians lost 70 thousand men. let russia get weakened

  • HItler is in Berlin during the battle-ultimately, he and his wife commit suicide and their bodies are burned by the nazi's so that they could not be captured by the russians-berlin is decimated and the war has come to an end

  • how did it stop?-US and communists suspicious of eachother-there is a loose alliance that allows them to have a common enemy
  • 1945-Yalta conference-Roosevelt and Churchill prepare for the end of the war-decide what will happen with the borders of countries in Europe-including Poland which was exiled in it government
  • FDR dies before end of war-Truman comes along and orders bombs to be dropped on Japan to end the Japanese campaign-Turman supports the Martial Plan-out fo the Yalta conference-the borders of German will be changed and the economic situation cannot occur again in germany from WWI-reparations is now seen by leadership as a main reason for the war. a plan is developed-the US is going to make an enormous investment in rebuilding Germany . US creates the modern Europe we know today
  • societ union is agains this because they do not want the US to be incompetition with Europe at their doorstep

British Revenge

after battle of britain the royal airfare celebrated

  • night raids
  • by 1941-british had lost 700 aircrafts